Friday, December 27, 2019

Constance Weavers 12 Principles for Teaching Grammar

For many years, when middle and high school English teachers would ask me to recommend a good book for teaching grammar, Id direct them to Constance Weavers Teaching Grammar in Context (Heinemann, 1996). Based on sound research and extensive road testing, Weavers book views grammar as a positive activity for making meaning, not just an exercise in tracking down ​errors or labeling parts of speech. But Ive stopped recommending Teaching Grammar in Context, though its still in print. Now I encourage teachers to pick up a copy of Weavers more recent book, Grammar to Enrich and Enhance Writing (Heinemann, 2008). Assisted by her colleague Jonathan Bush, Dr. Weaver does more than simply rework the concepts introduced in her earlier study. She delivers on her promise to offer a text thats more comprehensive, more reader-friendly, and more concretely focused on teachers practical needs. The fastest way to help you decide whether youd get along with Dr. Weaver, theoretically speaking, is to reprint her 12 principles for teaching grammar to enrich and enhance writing--principles that underlie all the varied activities in her book. Teaching grammar divorced from writing doesnt strengthen writing and therefore wastes time.Few grammatical terms are actually needed to discuss writing.Sophisticated grammar is fostered in literacy-rich and language-rich environments.Grammar instruction for writing should build upon students developmental readiness.Grammar options are best expanded through reading and in conjunction with writing.Grammar conventions taught in isolation seldom transfer to writing.Marking corrections on students papers does little good.Grammar conventions are applied most readily when taught in conjunction with editing.Instruction in conventional editing is important for all students but must honor their home language or dialect.Progress may involve new kinds of errors as students try to apply new writing skills.Grammar instruction should be included during various phases of writing.More research is needed on effective ways of teaching grammar to strengthen writing. To learn more about Constance Weavers Grammar to Enrich and Enhance Writing (and to read a sample chapter), visit the Heinemann website.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

A Brief Look at E-Commerce - 612 Words

E-commerce – This is about the purchases and sales of goods and/or services via electronic channels e.g. internet. It is very convenient to use online retail because it is available 24 hours; it is a global reach and ease of customer service. E-commerce was first introduced in the 1960’s and is not just on the web. It was created via electronic data interchange and through valued-added networks. In the 1990’s e-commerce was changed due to the introduction of Amazon and eBay which enabled costumers to sell things online. There are four different types of e-commerce: .B2B (business to business) – This e-commerce is about companies doing business with each other e.g. wholesalers selling to retail. .B2C (business to costumer) – This is about retail selling products to costumers. Costumers put things in a shopping basket and pay for them without the need of any of person, such as Amazon. .C2B (costumer to business) – A costumer would post a project with a set amount of money online and business bid on the project e.g. elance. C2C (customer to customer) – this type of e-commerce is about online websites (such as eBay) where people can put products on them to sell onto to other people. This shows retail businesses, which is business to customer. This shows customer to customer e-commerce. This shows online banking. This show businesses to businesses e-commernce because businesses buy products from a cash and carry and sell it on in profit.Show MoreRelatedEbay’s E-Commerce Success1032 Words   |  5 PagesEbay’s E-Commerce Success How Ebay Used IT to make it Big Kent Kirkwood Intro to Business, BA101 Professor Williams February 2nd, 2011 Ebay’s E-Commerce Success How Ebay Used IT to make it Big Ebay had an unusual start, when a 28 year old programmer named Pierre Omidyar, created a site to sell items online stated, Hsiao, A (n.d.). He posted some broken laser pointers for sale in an auction-style listing. He meant this to be an example for other things to be listed for sale. Then theRead MoreTechnology Makes the World Smaller1697 Words   |  7 PagesTechnology Make the World Smaller Office 2004 Test Drive User Table of Contents Commerce 4 Dell6 Ebay 7 E-cash8 Work Cited11 Footnotes12 Technology Makes the World Smaller The international marketplace is changing very fast every day. E-commerce and E-Business is now one of the standard ways to do business. The Internet has opened up vast opportunities for business to tap into new markets all over the world. The use of the Internet removes all geographical constraints, permits the instant establishmentRead MoreHow Technology Has Made Brick And Mortar Markets1435 Words   |  6 Pagestheir own e-commerce branch of their company to help them stay in the race with the advancement in technology. An example that stands out to me is the well-known retail store Target. Target has not only created a way for their customers to buy products on line, but they have also developed an application for their frequent shoppers, a debit card for Target lovers that want to save 5% instantly, and recently an online service to order products for pick up in-store. Before explaining all the e-commerceRead MoreAdvantages of being the first mover in E-commerce.12 76 Words   |  6 PagesE-commerce (electronic-commerce) refers to business over the Internet. With the growth of commerce on the Internet and the Web, e-commerce often refers to purchases from online stores on the Web, otherwise knows as e-commerce Web sites. The e-commerce marketplace is intensely and savagely competitive. Mellahi and Johnson (2000) noted that major sustainable competitive advantages are almost non-existent. That means that firms market advantage such as economies of scale are no longer enough to makeRead MoreCompany Profile And Philosophy Of, Inc.1210 Words   |  5 Pages1. Provide a (a) brief history of the company including the company profile and philosophy., Inc., is an e-commerce company that offers that offers a vast range of products through its website. It operates in two segments, North America and International. The North American segment focuses on retail sales, while the international segment focuses on the operations done through its international websites such as Through its website, the company offers instant videos,Read MoreInformation and Strategy on the E-commerce Website 756 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction: This report gives us detail information about e-commerce electronic web site which is based on an online order with high quality content information to customers. This enterprise was started 40 years ago by Bill Crutchfield as a print â€Å"miagalog† with an objective to provide a new and better approach of shopping experience. Currently the company has built one of the most successful consumer electronics stores online by providing more informative content than its competitionRead MoreWal Mart s Marketing Strategy1535 Words   |  7 Pagescan help them serve a larger market. Their internalization strategy gives Wal-Mart a strong foundation for growth, specifically for growth through the Internet. Their wide product assortment gives Wal-Mart the advantage of growing through their e-commerce. Wal-Mart U.S. has a total unit of 4,665 with 3,517 supercenters, 419 discount stores, 695 neighborhood markets, and 35 other. Sam’s Clubs has 656 total units. Wal-Mart International has a total of 6,345 total units, which include places like CanadaRead MoreHow Technology Has Changed The World Of Retailing1487 Words   |  6 PagesToday, we’ll be looking at one of the major trends in the world – technology and how it’s technological advancements have change the world of retailing especially in the apparel industry, thus we will be looking at New Look. One of the major trends affecting the retailing industry is the increase in the number of people who prefer shopping for apparel on the Internet from the comfort of their home rather than a tradition brick and mortar store. Emerging technology such as mobile applications andRead MoreInvestors Decisions, Facebook Model and Economic Viability of Facebook1406 Words   |  6 Pagesa purchase over Facebook (Laud on and Traver, 2012). What is unusual about these applications is that the transaction takes place on the Facebook site without being redirected to a third-party Web site. In other words, Facebook is turning into an e-commerce platform like Amazon and eBay and these reasons must have played a role in investors’ decisions to back Facebook through its short history because Facebook has profit and growth potentials and as a going concern. Developing a Model of FacebookRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Amazon1349 Words   |  6 Pages1. BRIEF OVERVIEW Amazon is an electronic commerce company which provides online retail shopping services to four primary customer sets: consumers, sellers, enterprises, and content creators. Amazon also serves consumers through its retail websites with a focus on selection, price, and convenience. The company designs the websites to enable products to be sold by the company and by third parties. was founded by Jeffrey P. Bezos in July 1994 and is headquartered in Seattle, WA. 2. IDENTIFY

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Disaster Brought by Typhoons in the Philippines free essay sample

Nowadays, what do you usually see in the television? In front of the headlines of newspaper? The one which everyones talking about, Showbiz? Lifestyles? Business? No, the most top news air last year was all about disaster brought by typhoons which leaves vast destructions not only In properties but also loss of thousands of lives. Our country, the Philippines has been blessed with natural resources where other countries dont have. Time by time, Filipinos have learned to utilize these resources or human necessities and for economic development. Some of these resources are converted to farms, subdivision and other Infrastructure, mainly our forest. If you will notice from the news, whenever a typhoon visits the Phlllpplnes. Floods were experienced were experience were experienced in the different parts of the country. Just like what happened n Mindanao last December. This place was struck by typhoon Sendong where it created devastating destruction in properties and lives. We will write a custom essay sample on Disaster Brought by Typhoons in the Philippines or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page To unlock the mystery behind the cause of these flashfloods, the main reason Is our forest. Why? It is because our forest here in the Philippines have been illegally logged, thats why the tall trees that should be the one to absorb large quantity of water brought by the rainfall could no longer support the soll that result to flashfloods and landslides. As we all know, trees plays an Important role In our environment. These problems regarding our forest resources should not be step aside and be gnore by our government and the society. Our government should have political will In setting a law against Illegal logging. And In that law stated that whoever caught breaking those rules should be punished. Let these be an eye opener for each of us and be a reminder for everyone that starting from now, we should pay attention to our forest. Preserve and maintain our forest beauty. Join the campaigns to fight against illegal logging, cause were not the only one who could benefit from It, but also the next generation.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Macro Environment External Forces that Affect Bakery Industry Essay Essay Example

Macro Environment External Forces that Affect Bakery Industry Essay Paper Executive sum-up Paris Baguette is a Gallic divine Korean bakeshop. which started in 1945. and it started off as a little bakeshop. Paris Baguette is now a extremely competitory bakeshop that has 32 shops world-wide and 4 shops in Singapore. This study is to advice Paris Baguette on affairs that are associated with effectual selling for its merchandise. topographic point. publicity and monetary value. This study will speak about things like. what Marco-environment that will impact the bakeshop industry every bit good as what microenvironment that will impact our organisation. We will write a custom essay sample on Macro Environment External Forces that Affect Bakery Industry Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Macro Environment External Forces that Affect Bakery Industry Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Macro Environment External Forces that Affect Bakery Industry Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This study will besides be explain what merchandise placement and perceptual function is and with the assistance of perceptual function it will exemplify the merchandise placement of Paris Baguette against their rivals. The recommendation for the study is to publicize Paris Baguette on telecasting or the newspaper to increase trade name consciousness. In add-on. to open more subdivisions in Singapore. as four shops is nil compared to their rivals like Bread Talk. Background Paris Baguette has started in 1945. called as ‘Sang-mi-dang’ in Woongjin. Korea. They had moved Sang-mi-dang to Seoul in 1948. The president of the company. Chang Sung Hur had changed the name of the company as ‘Sam Lip General Food Company in 1968 and entered the franchise market as a general nutrient company. In 1997. they have decided to hold merchandise trade name called ‘Shany Cake’ hence. the Sam lip and Shany cake shown great impact in the staff of life industry. In order to beef up their concern. they realized they need bakery trade name so they established Paris Croissant in 1986 and they called it as ‘Paris Baguette’ . which is a luxury Gallic bakeshop trade name. They have made first shop at Gwanghwamun ( Korea ) . one of the topographic point that a batch of people in Korea. They had good success. maintain spread outing the shops. and had 100 shops in Korea in 1992. They did 1st topographic point in bakeshop industry in 1997. and they maintained the first topographic point all the manner. In 2004. they decided to spread out the shops overseas and opened foremost shop in Shanghai. As a consequence. they have about 3. 200 shops in Korea entirely. Macro Environment external forces that affect bakery industry 2. 1Demographic environment The term ‘demography’ refers to the survey of human population on the footing of gender. age. race. income degree. denseness. instruction. household size. business. etc. Harmonizing to the informations studies that released by Singapore authorities. the population of female occupants is about equal to males. The chief mark clients of bakeshop industry are consider as females because they are most likely to hold a sweet tooth. It means that there is still some room for betterment to pull possible clients. such as males. Besides. an aging population and worsening birth rate besides has impact on bakeshop industry. The scope in age from 5 to 35 is considered as chief mark clients in bakeshop industry. With the addition of aged and lessening of kids. consumers of bakeshop industry will be bit by bit decrease. In order to pull more possible clients. bakeshop companies may establish new merchandises that suited for males and seniors. such as salty staff of life with meat or soft staff of life. which can be easy chaw. 2. 2Political Environment As a state. which has been crown the most business-friendly economic system all over the universe for the old 7 old ages. no 1 will doubt that Singapore authorities promote the development of company. Policy support helps with company operation. such as lessening the concern income tax- it will increase the net income of company. Singapore authorities addition the rewards revenue enhancement in order to assist hapless people. therefore. more clients will be able to afford staff of life. In add-on. policies of childbirth encouragement and in-migration besides help to increase the Numberss of consumers. Children are attract by lovely expression and sweet gustatory sensation of sweets. Europeans and Americans prefer bread alternatively of rice. and they should be habitues of bakeshops. However. these policies besides benefit other companies in bakeshop industry. and it will ensue in increasing of competitions. In order to keep the market portion. the company may cut down the monetary va lue of staff of life or launch more assortment of staff of life. 2. 3Economic Environment Economic factors are consists of rising pricess. revenue enhancement. involvement rate. currency exchanges rate. depression. etc. Those factors will act upon the buying power and disbursement forms of clients. If the involvement rate increased. people would wish to salvage their money in bank alternatively of passing them. That will ensue in lessening of purchasing power. therefore. the net income of company will cut down besides. Inflation besides causes lessening of purchasing power. Inflation puts a batch of force per unit area on people. and they will diminish day-to-day disbursals. it may act upon the bakeshop industry. Micro Environment forces that affect Paris Baguette 2. 4Competitors In Singapore. Break Talk considered as a rival of Paris Baguette because both of these two trade names are consists of bakeshop and cafe . In comparing. Bread Talk is more celebrated and familiar than Paris Baguette because it is the local trade name and it is plenty of subdivisions. There are merely four mercantile establishments of Paris Baguette. but more than 25 subdivisions of Bread Talk in Singapore. The advantages of Paris Baguette are ‘delicacy’ and assortment of merchandises. Delicate visual aspects of decorate and merchandises attract many clients. The advantages of Bread Talk are it’s lower monetary value and publicities. To compare these two trade names. Paris Baguette is more suited for yuppies. but Bread Talk is suited for ordinary household. 2. 5Customers The clients positioning of Paris Baguette: kids. twosomes and 15 to 35-year-old females. Merchandises of Paris Baguette are more expensive than other general bakeshop trade names. therefore. consumers of Paris Baguette should be good pay. Customers prefer cafe of Paris Baguette. so they frequented braches in the afternoon. particularly during the weekends. Macro environment forces that affect Paris Baguette Two of the Macro environment. which have affect Paris Baguette are the Economic environment and social-cultural environment. The economic environment affected the Paris Baguette franchises. which the production costs increased due to the monetary value of the oil and the grain increased. All the franchises have to pay more in order to buy the ingredients. Besides. Paris Baguette in the American and China markets have faced some unsure economic failure. This has cause rather a large impact to Paris Baguette. â€Å"A weak currency is the mark of a weak economic system. and a weak economic system leads to a weak state. † ( Perot. N. D ) . In add-on. the social-cultural environment. which affect Paris Baguette have to cognize the different cultural nutrient gustatory sensation of the chosen state. which mean they have to happen out what type of merchandises can increase the involvement and Paris Baguette have to collaborate with it by making the merchandise the people like. Besides. for the aging people and adult female will give more attending to their ain wellness and they prefer more on organic nutrient. In order to take a bigger market. Paris Baguette has to bring forth more organic and healthy merchandises due to the healthy diet flow. Merchandise Positioning. Merchandise placement is one of marketing techniques that promote merchandises in the best manner to aim audiences. The most of import thing is to purchase the merchandise. It is rather similar with market cleavage as the merchandise placement is made of making the message and involves the symbol and use. which conclude show and packaging. In Paris baguette. they used 5methods for the merchandise placement. They are ‘threat of new entrants ( excessively much capital is non required for fall ining the bakeshop franchise market ) ’ . ‘bargaining power of providers ( the natural stuff is of import for them in bakeshop industry and the stuffs like rice and flour ) ’ . ‘threat of replacement merchandises ( many other replacement merchandises are exist such as flour based nutrient. instant nutrient. etc. For illustration. Starbucks is one of cafe that makes high net income with utility merchandises ) ’ . ‘bargaining power of clients ( They don’t have trouble to exchange buying mercantile establishments because of standardised bakeshop merchandises ) ’ and ‘competitive competition within an industry ( there is intense competition in the market among other trade names because of impregnation. There does non hold many houses within industry but large trade names like Tour les Jour exist. There besides have high issue barriers and difficult to distinguish the strategic for each house. ) ’ . Perceptual function From the image above. we can see that Paris Baguettes ( PB ) and Baker A ; Cook ( B A ; C ) has the high monetary value and high quality compared to Sunshine Bakery ( SB ) . It is because PB and B A ; C uses really good quality and high cost for the ingredients compared to SB. B A ; C is selling merchandises somewhat higher than PB is because of the company’s ordinance. Paris Baguette use the merchandise placement scheme. which is ‘positioning by price/quality’ . This is because they want to do certain their client satisfy with their merchandises and can devour their merchandise is in high quality in other words mean the gustatory sensation of the staff of life. the freshness and the brittleness of the staff of life. However. in order to bring forth a high quality merchandise. they have to utilize high quality natural stuffs to bring forth their merchandises such as the flour. butter. grain and other. which mean their merchandises are in high quality and the m onetary value issomewhat higher. â€Å"The quality of a leader is reflected in the criterions they set for themselves. † ( Kroc. 1984 ) Marketing research The primary selling research technique that I would urge Paris Baguette to utilize for roll uping information related to client satisfaction is the study method. The study method is by far the most popular of all the research method. Survey method is a list of inquiries that ask persons about their penchants. attitudes towards our merchandise and purchasing behaviors. We would necessitate to make the questionnaire that will enter the informations. Example of the study inquiry will be: What is the first thing that comes into your head when you think of Paris baguette? Do you bask our choice of staff of life? Which one of our merchandise make you wish best?How can we better on our merchandise?Are our monetary values reasonable?Are our staffs friendly?Is our subdivision location convenient for you?What new merchandise would you like to seek?What is your age group? Others- These inquiries will assist Paris Baguette better on their merchandise and happen out what their clients thinks about the organisation and what new merchandises they would wish to see from Paris baguette. One determination that I have found from the selling research is that our stores location is inconvenient for people that are hotfooting. In add-on. we open merely at 10a. m. which is after the forenoon peak hr. Paris Baguette can do our shops more convenient for the working category by seting them near the MRT Stationss and opening our shops before the forenoon peak hr. By opening our shops during peak hr we can pull people who have non ate their breakfast as they are hotfooting for work. and by seting our shops near an MRT. It would do it much more convenient for people to come to our shops to purchase our merchandise particularly those who are hotfooting. Marketing Mix Strategies of Paris Baguette Marketing mix consists on the 4Ps. which are merchandise. monetary value. publicity and topographic point. We are traveling to analyze the selling mix the Paris Baguette bakeshop. In first topographic point. we can see that the Paris Baguette is a bakeshop with a high assortment of merchandises. The Paris Baguette supplies fresh bakeshop merchandises in over 3000 locations worldwide. Their merchandises are different for each state depending on the civilization and the people of each state. They do non hold the same merchandises In United States and In Singapore. for illustration. This is because people from different states have different penchants of gustatory sensation. However. there are some common merchandises in all their subdivisions. For illustration. the most common merchandises are the types of staff of life. the pastries and pie. the bars. sweets and sandwiches and drinks. They besides sell other type of merchandises like cups of tea. Talking about the monetary value. the monetary value in the Paris Baguette is equal to the quality of the merchandise and the cost of purchase. The Paris Baguette keeps low-cost monetary values in order to be accessible for more people to pull more clients. Of class they have to analyze the rivals monetary values and offers before adjust the concluding monetary value of their merchandises. Besides finding the demand of each merchandise and the estimating costs. If a merchandise has a high demand. the cost would increase. For illustration. a piece of bar would be around $ 3. 95. Talking about the publicity. the Paris Baguette is a bakeshop with tonss of publicities. They use two different ways of publicity to pull people. The first manner is to make advertizements about their merchandises with nice images and an seemingly household friendly topographic point. The 2nd manner is making gross revenues publicity. For illustration. purchase one sweet and acquire the 2nd one free. or making breakfast offers like a cup of java and a sandwich for $ 3. 50. They use this two ways for publicity. Finally. the topographic point. The Paris Baguette focuses ever in acquiring subdivisions in the Centre of the metropoliss. They are non interested in acquiring subdivisions in little towns or topographic points with non excessively much people. This is because they want a high norm of people per twenty-four hours and this can accomplish merely in the Centre of the metropoliss and specific topographic points. For illustration. in Singapore they have a large subdivision in Orchard. which is the chief route in Singapore. Marketing Mix In my sentiment. there are a few points that Paris Baguette could implement in the hereafter. This can be focus on the publicity events. In my sentiment. the Paris Baguette could implement rather a batch their clients by making some bar and bread events. Paris Baguette can pull more clients. while advancing their merchandises. This could be done by making some events each twelvemonth rent a topographic point in a shopping promenade and put up a phase in a big crowd topographic points. Meanwhile. while advancing their merchandises. Paris Baguette can give out their new merchandises with free of charge. This would be an betterment for their celebrity. This because every bit long as it is free. when people try their bakeshop merchandises and it taste good. people will purchase the merchandises. These events will pull people from everyplace. which mean Paris Baguette will hold more clients purchasing their merchandises and it will increase their net income. â€Å"Profit in concern comes from repetition clients. clients that boast about your undertaking or service. and that conveying friends with them. † ( Edwards. 1993 ) Recommendation In Singapore. Bread Talk’s celebrity surpasses Paris Baguette. Thus. Paris Baguette may publicize on Television or newspaper in order to additions trade name consciousness. Besides. they besides need to spread out more subdivisions all about Singapore in every individual shopping promenades to increase competitory. This is because are merely four subdivisions of Paris Baguette. which is far less than Numberss of subdivisions of Bread Talk and other bakeshop companies. Decision ‘Sang myocardial infarction dang’ was a little bakeshop which began in 1945. After some betterment. Paris Baguette have been start up and their concern expand with a rapid velocity. Paris Baguette is a mature domestic franchise bakeshop with a high per centum of portion footings and their stores have already franchised to worldwide. Paris Baguette have maintained their high place for a period. This is because they have did their Micro and Macro environmental factors. which will impact their concern. and they try to get the better of it. Besides. Paris Baguette besides did probe of its rivals. in order to cognize more about its rivals. After the probe have done. they try to compare it to their ain companies by utilizing a perceptual function construct. which can assist them to cognize their ain scope with its rivals. Furthermore. to cognize how to derive more clients. Paris baguette choose a study method by inquiring the random passers and to cognize more about. which bakeshop merchandises do they prefer or like. In add-on. Paris baguette known as a bakeshop which more on merchandise and monetary value. which mean they sell high quality merchandises. Therefore. they will take a high quality of natural ingredients to bring forth their merchandises and put up a higher monetary value but sensible. Nevertheless. Paris Baguette besides choose more crowded country to put up their store to allow more people notice their store and purchase their merchandises. Besides. in order to pull client. Paris Baguette besides did some publicities for theirs merchandises such as the particular of the twenty-four hours for the merchandises. Mentions Barney. J. B ( 1995 ) . â€Å"Looking inside for competitory advantage. † Academy of Management Executive. 9 ( 4 ) . 49-61 Cafehopping. ( 2012-2014 ) . Paris Baguette. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //cafehopping. sg/review-post/paris-baguette-cafe-singapore/ . Last accessed 3rd April 2014. Demographics of Singapore. [ ONLINE ] Available from: [ Accessed 20 March 2014 ] Henry. A ( 2008 ) . Understanding Strategic Management ( 1st ed. ) . Oxford: OUP. Jaeseok Jeong. et. Al. ( 2013 ) . Sucess Factor of Paris Baguette’s Bakery Frachise Business: Industry Competition and Core Competence Analysis. ASIA MARKETING JOURNAL. 15 ( 2 ) . p1-27. James Manktelow. ( 1996-2014 ) . The Marketing Mix and 4 Ps. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. mindtools. com/pages/article/newSTR_94. htm. Last accessed 3rd April 2014. Political Environment. [ ONLINE ] Available from: [ Accessed 27 March 2014 ] Ray Kroc. ( 1902-1984 ) . Ray Kroc quotes. Available: last accessed 1st April 2014. Ross Peros. ( N. D ) . Quotes. Available:Last accessed 1st April 2014. S. Jaychandran ( 2006 ) . Marketing Management: text and instances. New Delhi: Anurag Jain. Singapore is most business-friendly for 7th twelvemonth straight By Malminderjit Singh The Business Times | Fri. Oct 26. 2012 [ ONLINE ] Available from: [ Accessed 21 March 2014 ] W. Edwards. ( 1900-1993 ) . W. Edwards Deming quotes. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //thinkexist. com/quotation/profit_in_business_comes_from_repeat_customers/226671. hypertext markup language. Last accessed 3rd April 2014. What is a macro environment? [ ONLINE ] Available from: [ Accessed 20 March 2014 ]

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The JFK Assassination - Conspiracy Or Single Gunman Essays

The JFK Assassination - Conspiracy or Single Gunman Adolf Hitler, the Nazi dictator of Germany during World War II, once said, "The bigger the lie, the more people will believe it." Although this may sound ludicrous, we can see many example of this in the world's history. One example would have to be the John Fitzgerald Kennedy assassination. For over thirty years the people of the United States were led to believe that a single gunman shot and killed Kennedy in Dallas on November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m... However, in this paper, I will dispute the ancient analization of the facts that show a single gunman was involved, and try to show that a conspiracy must have been present. According to the old facts regarding the case of the JFK assassination, Kennedy was killed by a single gunman. On November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. CST (Central Standard Time), Kennedy was riding in an open limousine through Dallas, Texas. At this time, Kennedy was shot in the head and neck by a sniper. He was then taken to Parkland Memorial Hospital, where he was pronounced dead. Later, police arrested Lee Harvey Oswald, a former U.S. Marine, at a nearby theater. By the next morning, Oswald was booked for the murder of President John F. Kennedy. Two days later, Oswald was killed by Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub owner, while he was being moved from the city to the county jail. At a glance, the above story sounds as if this should be an open-and-shut case. After all, according to the facts above, Oswald must have killed Kennedy. However, you must take a deeper look into this case. Many people who witnessed the murder of John F. Kennedy dispute the facts above, saying that they heard shots from places besides the book depository, and other things that may contradict what is stated above. One of these Marino, 2 witnesses, Abraham Zapruder, captured the entire assassination on his Bell and Howell eight millimeter movie camera. This movie, cleverly called the Zapruder Film, is the single best piece of visual evidence in this case. In order to more clearly understand the Zapruder Film, it is necessary to break it down into frames. The particular Bell and Howell movie camera that Zapruder was using ran at eighteen and three-hundredths (18.3) frames per second. When using this frame system, you must remember that all shots were actually fired several frames before the number that is assigned to them. For example, the fatal heard wound, called Z313, was probably fired at Z310, since it took 2-3 frames at 18.3 frames per second for the bullet to reach the victim. Also, you must remember that sound travels at about one thousand-one hundred (1,100) feet per second, or a little over half as fast as the Mannlicher Carcano's bullets. When keeping this in mind, it is expected that witnesses heard the shot at some point after the bullet passed. The following shows a break down of the frames of the Zapruder film: - The Presidential limousine first comes into view at frame 133 (the starting point of this timeline.) - The first shot at (or just before) Z187 would have passed through both Governor Connally and the President. Marino, 3 - The second shot, which passed above the limousine at Z284, missed the President and hit the curb near witness James Tague. This caused his minor would. - At Z313, the fatal shot occurs, which blew out major portions of the Presidents brain and skull. - A fourth shot occurred at Z323 (slightly 1/2 second after the fatal wound at Z313). Due to the proximity of this report to the one at Z313, as well as it's more distant origin, most witnesses were unable to hear this shot. Thus, the above is when the bullets hit either Kennedy or Connally, or passed through the frames of the Zapruder film (in the case of the second shot). Of the one-hundred seventy-eight (178) witnesses at Dealey Plaza, one-hundred thirty-two (132) said that they hear exactly three shots. If Oswald was a single gunman, it would have taken him at least 2.3 seconds to reload his Mannlicher Carcano rifle. However, the

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Rebecca Book Report

Book Report The book Rebecca, is written by Daphne DuMaurier. This story takes place sometime in the early 1900’s. The book is about a simple young woman who marries a widowed man, and their life together and the secrets she finds out about this mans life. The narrator of this story is a very important character. She is never given a name but she is the woman who marries Mr. De Winter, another main character of the story. They meet in Monte Carlo, and they marry shortly after. The narrator is described as a delicate, plain looking woman. The reader gets the impression that she is fairly young and very timid. She describes herself as having ‘mousy hair and thin lips’. The narrator has a huge role in this book because she is the woman that comes in and replaces Maxims (Mr. De Winter) other wife. The other wife’s name was Rebecca. The narrator and Rebecca have nothing in common. Rebecca was a very outgoing, beautiful, evil woman. The narrator is a very shy, reserved, sweet woman. The narrator has a very hard time running the household that she has gained possession over. We see this in the ways she talks to the servants in the house. She seems much more afraid of them, than they are of her. One example is when a charac ter Mr. Favel comes to visit Ms. Danvers and the narrator tries to hide from the two in order to avoid and uncomfortable situation. She seems to often forget that she is the mistress of the house and that she should have control. She is constantly pushed around and verbally abused by Ms. Danvers. Ms. Danvers constantly taunts the narrator with stories of Rebecca and how she received much more love and attention from Maxim. Throughout the book the narrator struggles with her shyness and lack of control. Towards the middle of the book she slowly starts to realize that in order to be respected by her household, she must take control. She starts to order things to be done, and have things her own way. For instance,... Free Essays on Rebecca Book Report Free Essays on Rebecca Book Report Book Report The book Rebecca, is written by Daphne DuMaurier. This story takes place sometime in the early 1900’s. The book is about a simple young woman who marries a widowed man, and their life together and the secrets she finds out about this mans life. The narrator of this story is a very important character. She is never given a name but she is the woman who marries Mr. De Winter, another main character of the story. They meet in Monte Carlo, and they marry shortly after. The narrator is described as a delicate, plain looking woman. The reader gets the impression that she is fairly young and very timid. She describes herself as having ‘mousy hair and thin lips’. The narrator has a huge role in this book because she is the woman that comes in and replaces Maxims (Mr. De Winter) other wife. The other wife’s name was Rebecca. The narrator and Rebecca have nothing in common. Rebecca was a very outgoing, beautiful, evil woman. The narrator is a very shy, reserved, sweet woman. The narrator has a very hard time running the household that she has gained possession over. We see this in the ways she talks to the servants in the house. She seems much more afraid of them, than they are of her. One example is when a charac ter Mr. Favel comes to visit Ms. Danvers and the narrator tries to hide from the two in order to avoid and uncomfortable situation. She seems to often forget that she is the mistress of the house and that she should have control. She is constantly pushed around and verbally abused by Ms. Danvers. Ms. Danvers constantly taunts the narrator with stories of Rebecca and how she received much more love and attention from Maxim. Throughout the book the narrator struggles with her shyness and lack of control. Towards the middle of the book she slowly starts to realize that in order to be respected by her household, she must take control. She starts to order things to be done, and have things her own way. For instance,...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

LAW Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

LAW - Essay Example As such, the national courts are under an obligation to promote EU law. However, the English courts follow a dualist approach in dealing with cases of non – compliance. This practice has resulted in a number of barriers for the UK courts to integrate the EU law with their national legislation1. In order to interpret the EU law, the European Court of Justice mainly depends on three sources; namely, the EU Treaties, Articles of the Treaties and provisions of EU law. The ECJ deals with cases of breach of EU law by Member States if their national legislation fails to correctly interpret the EU law. The ECJ then examines the legal basis of the Acts enacted by the institutions of the EU to find out their legality and practicality. Member States refer cases of infringement of EU law to the ECJ for the proper interpretation of EU law2. In the context of European integration, the United Kingdom has retained its parliamentary sovereignty to a very limited extent, in several matters relating to the European Union. The UK cannot escape from being penalised for breach of EU law; and it cannot determine the scope and extent of the penalties imposed upon it. Furthermore, the United Kingdom cannot abstain from implementing any directives issued by the EC nor does it have the power to withhold parts of directives from being implemented. This was established in the case of Factortame in 19913. In that case the parliamentary sovereignty of the UK was completely ignored by the European Court of Justice. The House of Lords refused to implement the Merchant Shipping Act 1988 on the plea that the Act challenged and derogated from, parliamentary supremacy in the UK. In another case, namely, R v. Secretary of State for Employment4, the House of Lords held that the Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978 was not in accordanc e with the EU Law. Their

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The market position of Nivea for men in UK Essay

The market position of Nivea for men in UK - Essay Example (Euromonitor, 2010) Bargaining power of suppliers (Low): Nivea has a high bargaining power with respect to its suppliers because of its diverse portfolio and generating economies of scale (Beiersdorf AG , 2010). Bargaining power of buyers (High): Customers of men grooming products have high bargaining powers due to low switching costs, price sensitivity to grooming products etc (Kay, 2006). Threat of Substitutes (Medium): Nivea for men has a high threat of substitutes from general grooming products, natural products such as olive oil etc. (Heijden, 2005) SWOT Analysis for Nivea For Men In order to fully understand the competitive advantages and vulnerabilities of Nivea, (Beiersdorf AG, 2011)we conduct the following SWOT analysis for Nivea for men: The Boston Group Matrix The overall market growth of the men’s grooming market is 3% (2009-2014 CAGR) (Euromonitor, 2010) and the relative market share of Beiersdorf (Nivea for Men) is low. Market share of Beiersdorf AG is 5.3% (2011 ) as compared to 32% of P&G (Euromonitor, 2010). With a low market growth and low market share, Nivea for Men falls into the Dogs enterprise position, which indicates that Business is a cash trap (BRS Inc). The best thing that Nivea for Men can do is to focus on short term, avoid risky investments and look into niche segments. Where do we want to be? (Strategy Formulation) This stage of marketing strategies planning describes the objectives and aims of Nivea’s marketing plans, the strategy formulation for its brands’ growth and identification of â€Å"the business we’re in†. Before defining the objectives of Nivea’s marketing strategies, we must recollect the competitive advantages that Nivea for men... This research describes the Situation analysis or Market Audit for Nivea in the men’s grooming market in UK considering both External and Internal perspectives. Nivea currently holds the #2 spot in men’s grooming category for the UK market. The ‘Nivea-for-men’ case-study details the challenges that Nivea for men is having in the men’s grooming market in UK. Upon extensive analysis of the market and competition, it is evident that Nivea-for-men even though is a leading and important brand for both Beiersdorf and overall market, it’s sales still lag behind the flagships products of P&G and Unilever. The growth opportunity that is seen for Nivea for Men is the growing skin care segment with a CAGR (2004-2011) of 17.8%. Owing to the iconic branding of Nivea in skin-care products, Beiersdorf possess a competitive advantage in penetrating and increasing the skin-care market for men. In order to do so, they should segment their consumers on attribute s of age and shopping behavior. Target segments identified for Nivea for men are Adult adopters, midlife adopters, senior adopters, and midlife experimenters. The various attack strategies that Nivea for men can use are products bunding, progressive promotions and pricing. The various defence strategies that should be implemented by Beiersdorf are flanking defense and position defence. With proper risk management in place with respect to the implementation and control of marketing plan, it is bound that market share of Nivea for men will increase in the UK market.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Geography assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Geography - Assignment Example In reality, Western Europe probably has the resources to handle the aging population. What many experts are noting, however, is the reality that many traditional values are slowly being forgotten due a decrease in the native population of the region. The number of immigrants flooding into the region, bringing with them their own culture, values, and ways of life, is slowly blending in with other Western Europe traditions. This is slowly creating a new culture that many fear will mean the loss of many long-standing traditions that have been in place across the continent for centuries. Russia is facing yet a different crisis in terms of their recent decline in the native population. In previous decades, war and cultural conflicts have nearly decimated various sectors of the native population. This is quite troubling to the Russian people and they are fervently seeking out ways to reverse this trend and protect the less dominant groups residing within their borders. This brief paper wil l examine the issues surrounding this population decline within both Western Europe and Russia in an effort to better understand the importance of reversing this trend moving forward. Western Europe Western Europe has been undergoing a period of decline in terms of native population for quite some time now. Take Germany as an example. In Germany, if you take away immigration numbers, the net population would actually be declining. If these trends continue, Edmonston (2006) points out that, â€Å"The German population will eventually decline because of below replacement fertility, if net immigration does not counteract that decrease† (p. 513). Even if immigration does make up for the initial decline, the fear is that German culture will slowly be eroded and rewritten. The argument here is not centered on whether or not immigrants can assimilate into German culture. The reality is that immigrants are fulfilling a labor need and they are adjusting to the German way of life in re cord numbers. If this trend continues, however, certain traditions and values that Germans have held dear for centuries could easily become forgotten. The reality of population decline and the potential erosion of cultural values is not limited to Germany. All over Western Europe countries are grappling with the reality that native population growth is simply not keeping up with an aging and dying society. From the United Kingdom to France to Scandinavian countries, governments are faced with difficult decisions about how to deal with the problem. Part of the problem in Western Europe appears to be sociological in nature. Europeans, under systems of democracy, have seen less of an emphasis on class divisions in recent years. In addition, the general population is more materialistic than before and young adults have big dreams and ambitions for their life. Because of this, and the sheer expense of raising children, the birth rate has plummeted to levels never before seen. All of thes e reasons, and others, combine to form a reality where population growth simply becomes difficult to achieve (Ross, 2003, pp. 710-711) Russia The entire region of Russia has been experiencing a decline in their native population as well. In

Friday, November 15, 2019

Project Planning And Challenges Facing Planners Construction Essay

Project Planning And Challenges Facing Planners Construction Essay This chapter will review the literature which has been used for this dissertation. A number of important aspects will be covered, including an overview of Construction Planning as well as determining what challenges are faced on a daily basis by construction planners. This chapter will also review research relating to Planning techniques used and software packages available within the Construction industry. 2.2 Construction Project Planning Project Management can be seen as the application of tools and techniques utilised to guide the use of resources towards achieving an intricate task within the constraints of time, cost and quality. From conception to completion, a mixture of these tools techniques is necessary to fit the task environment and project life cycle. (Oisen 1970). The British Standard for project management (BS6079 1996) defined project management as, The planning, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the project objectives on time and to the specified cost, quality and performance. The UK association of Project Management (APM) have produced a UK body of knowledge UK (BoK) which also provides a definition for project management as The planning, organisation, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all involved to achieve the project objectives safely and within agreed time, cost and performance criteria. The project manager is the single point of responsibility for achieving this. Project Management as we know today has evolved in order to plan, coordinate and control the complex and diverse activities of modern industrial, commercial and management change projects. (Lock 2007) To allow for effective planning and control of projects, a requirement for systematic and logical methods should be applied along with proven techniques, thus ensuring a successful project outcome for all concerned parties, particularly the client. Without planning it is difficult to envisage the successful conclusion of any project or the effective control of time, money or resources. Planning is also essential in order to deal with construction risks and devise safe working methods. (Cooke 2008) Project Planning is defined as the establishment of a set of directions in sufficient detail to tell the project team exactly what must be done, when it must be done and what resources to use in order to produce the deliverables of the project successfully. (Zwikael 2008). Construction planning is an essential and challenging activity in the management and implementation of construction projects. It occupies the choice of technology, the description of work tasks, the estimation of the necessary resources and durations for individual tasks, and the identification of any interactions among the different work tasks. Hendrickson (1998) believes a good construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the schedule for work. It is therefore common to adopt a conspicuous importance on either cost control or on schedule control as illustrated in Figure 2.1. Fig 2.1 (Hendrickson. 1998) Walker (2007) considers that by having a project schedule to work to and sticking to it, you will well be on your way to delivering successful projects. This would be dependant on effective communication and efficiency at all stages of the project and with an aim to reducing risk, time and cost. 2.3 The Construction Planner Construction project planning is receiving growing attention as the limitations of formal deterministic planning are becoming more widely recognised. (Winch, Kelsey 2004). There is growing concern over the failure of construction planning to achieve its goals in spite of the considerable resources allocated to it. Deficient planning techniques are commonly blamed for this state. (Laufer, Tucker, 1987) There has been considerable debate over the last decade or so on the effectiveness of construction project planning. However, there is remarkably little research into what construction project planners actually do. Laufer and Tucker provide a critique of construction planning. They protest that:- the planning and evaluation of planning processes are non-existent there is over-emphasis on critical path methods planners lack construction experience planners have poor information gathering methods planning is control-oriented instead of action-oriented Plans are been poorly presented with overly-complex information. In a subsequent paper (1994) Laufer and his colleagues look at the definition and allocation of planning work. They found that there was no clear system at work and planning was done in a multiplicity of ways. They call for the process to be properly co-ordinated by a single individual who will own the planning process and improve communication. Winch and Kelsey (2005) believe the specialist planner has the time to do the work but incomplete practical knowledge. The line manager has the practical knowledge but does not have the quality time to carry out the task. The specialist planner has better strategic decision-making skills than the short-term decision-making focus of the line manager. They then go on to say Line managers see the delegation of key decision-making to another as a threat to their position. These problems are confirmed in Laufer (1992) wider project management study and can result in: The planner preparing a plan which has incomplete information and in-adequate decision making authority. The line manager treating such plans as merely an irrelevant forecast prepared by another. Allen Smallwood (2008) believe Construction planners and the role they perform are little understood both within the construction industry and the wider environment where construction has a daily impact. Planning occupies a central position in the functions of the manager. His responsibilities may vary with organisational philosophy and contingency but planning invariably remains an essential ingredient of his duties. (Steiner, 1979). Much Research and Development effort has been made during the last three decades but progress with techniques has not removed the dissatisfaction with the application and results of construction planning (Choudhury 1981, Mason 1984, Morton 1983). Effective construction planning demands that it is carried out by competent and experienced personnel. While the estimator must remain in charge or pricing the work, most contracts, today, are too complex for the estimator to handle the technical content of pre-tender appraisal. It is here that the construction planner has a major function. 2.4 Planning Techniques Most planning techniques aim to express the work to be done, to a time-scale; some also include resources, and perhaps cost and value. In simple terms, they intend to help control time and cost. The other major factor in project control, quality, is controlled by its own family of control techniques; and quality is related to time and cost through the skill and judgement of the project management team. Neale (1989) believes the major components of planning techniques are: Activities: literally, being busy, expending energy, consuming resources, taking time; in construction planning, this means a job to be done; for example preparing a drawing, an order to be places, a hole to be dug, bricks to be laid in a wall, a flow of water to be diverted. Activity durations: the time required for the completion of each activity Project time-scale: the time structure of the project; it is usual to give each week in the project a number (this makes calculation easier), and these then have to be related to calendar dates, holidays, etc. Event: an occurrence at a specific point in time; for example, the granting of planning consent, of the start or end of a traffic diversion. Work method: the plan must be expressed in some logical way, indicating the sequence of operations, and which activities and events are interrelated; this may be implicit (as with bar charts) or exlicit (in network analysis, where work method is usually called logic.) Resources: often called the four Ms (men, machines, materials and money) but can include overheads (for example, site accommodation), and even such essentials as managerial skill. Costs: what the work has or will cost, often derived directly from the unit costs of the individual resources. Value: what has or can be earned by payment for work done derived from the bill of quantities, the estimate or an internal budget. The calculation of value-to-date can be used as an overall measure of project progress. The following four techniques are often used in construction planning; Bar charts, Network analysis, Line-of-balance Linear programmes. 2.4.1 The bar chart/ Gantt Chart Drafting of a bar chart is popular because it produces results which are easy to understand and not too searching of the planner. Its use is limited to planning straightforward work with simple relationships between the activities. This graphical technique still forms the foundation for most resource scheduling. Its major drawback is that even minor deviations from it require extensive redrafting as a result making it more difficult to having to hand a contemporaneous bar chart that is a reliable indicator of future events. The main features of the bar chart are as follows: The activities are listed on the vertical axis Time is shown on the horizontal axis. This may be an appropriate time unit, such as months or days. Each bar is divided horizontally into two, with the top half representing when the activity is planned to take place, and the bottom shared in, as proportions of the activity are completed. A vertical movable marker line indicates the current time, thus enabling the observer to note if any activities are behind programme, and to what extent. Refer to Figure 2.2 for additional information. Figure 2.2 Typical bar chart The format of the bar chart presumes that the end user (client) can involve the same judgment that was in the mind of the planner when he was compiling it. In highly repetitive or simple work it can be implied that the users will better understand the thought process of the planner. However as project complexity increases the users ability to monitor the project in relation to the programme is reduced unless it is understood: What work is important to progress? Of the activities currently behind programme what, if any, effect do they have on overall progress? On the contrary, if most of the actual work is ahead of programme, does this mean that the current prediction is that the project will be complete in advance of the targeted completion date? The answer is definitely not an automatic yes. To provide an informed response, an understanding of the relationships between programme activities is crucial. Neale (1989) consider these deceivingly simple questions contradict issues which are at the heart of many construction disputes, namely considerations for extension of time. 2.4.2 Network Analysis Unlike a bar chart, activities are not shown on an axis of time. What the network portrays is the logical relationship between activities. Network analysis is a powerful, logical and analytical technique. It is most effective when used for complicated projects, especially those with external constraints and complex interrelationships. The technique is based on drawing the logical relationships between construction operations, and from an analysis of the relative durations, establishing which operations have the most crucial effect on the project duration. It can be drawn in a number of ways, the most well-known in the UK being the arrow diagram. Figure 2.3 Network diagram The technique is sometimes known as the critical path method (CPM), and critical path analysis (CPA). A version which incorporates a statistical method for calculating the probability that a project will be completed on a specific date is called the programme evaluation and review technique. (PERT) The identification of a critical path focuses the attention of the individuals managing the project and highlights to clients and their advisors the tasks that require to be particularly well managed with regard to time. The duration of critical path represents the shortest duration in which the project can be completed. Delays to activities on the critical path transmit directly through to extend the project completion date. This provides advanced warning of the pending delay to completion and enables the contractor (or employer) to invoke recovery action at a useful point in time rather than waiting until it is manifestly obvious that the completion date is threatened. If the employer or his Architect/Engineer (A/E) instructs additional work which affects the activities on the critical path then the contractor has grounds for a claim for an extension of time. The term critical path is widely used in the construction industry; what is not fully appreciated is how easily the critical path can change. Figure 2.4 Network diagram showing critical path Network analysis has a good and inclusive logical basis, lends itself easily to computer processing, and can be used as an effective control tool. These exceptional characteristics are also known to be its principal weakness as it is easier for the planner to be drawn into a level of planning and analysis that is much to detailed and advanced for most construction projects. 2.4.3 Line of Balance Line of balance is a specialised technique used for repetitive work. It derived from the manufacturing industry and has been found to be effective in planning work truly repetitive. Examples of success applications include planning the construction of identical floors in high rise construction, and large housing developments. Line of balance has been found to be difficult to use on projects which have a high demand for trades or operations to construct each identical unit. The problems arise not from the technique itself, but from the difficult of showing all the information on one chart, particularly when using the technique to monitor progress. When used to plan, it can be an excellent means of relating resources, activity durations and the general pace of work on site. Neale (1989). Illingworth (1993) considers the line of balance approach has largely fallen out of use in todays industry due to the fact it was designed primarily for housing and did not readily provide clear visual appreciation of the situation at a glance. Figure 2.5 -Typical line of balance diagram 2.4.4 Linear Programme (or time-chainage chart) Linear programming is a specialised technique for linear work. This is a basic tool of UK road contractors. Other successful applications include the construction of a large canal in a developing country, and it is especially useful in tunnelling. Illingworth (1993). Similar to line of balance, this is a simple two- dimensional graphical technique and can show clearly only a limited amount of information and limited degree of complexity. Figure 2.6 Linear Programme (Neale 1989) 2.5 Which technique? The experienced planner in construction needs to be aware of the techniques available, together with the value of each, both in the planning analysis role and how then can be applied to give effective control and communication to management on site. Illingworth (1993). Like any other professional, the planner has to select the right tool for the job. To make the correct decision, it is therefore a requirement to examine what is wanted in a particular situation programme. Illingworth (1993) believes the main points of this choice are as follows: Does the method aid initial analysis of the situation and especially in establishing the best sequence of events? Are deficiencies in progress shown up as the work proceeds? Can visiting management obtain and immediate view of the contract situation on arrival on site? With the preponderance of subcontractors on site today, does the programme method give assistance in cash flow control? According to Illingworth, from these questions it is unlikely to be the answer to all desires. Therefore it is said to be better to consider the situation in two stages tender planning on the one hand and the operational planning after the contract has been won, on the other. 2.6 Planning Practice In order to explore further the reality of construction project planning semi-structured interviews were conducted between July and December 2000 with 18 experienced planners from five leading UK construction firms. Most of the planners interviewed were currently involved in planning at the tender stage including assembly and presentation of the tender documentation. About half of those were also involved at the tender/ pre-construction stage. Only a few were further involved during the site works. (Refer to figure 2.7). Generally, although a number of the interviewed planners had on-site experience the typical pattern is that a planner works either at the pre-tender, pre-execution stages or on site but not simultaneously. The exceptions tend to be where planners work for some time on a single large project. In such cases it may make sense (from the employers point of view) for their work to carry on to the execution stage. Figure 2.7 Planning Practice, G.M Winch and J.Kelsey 2.7 Programming Considerations at the Tender Stage Upon receipt of tender documentation, the contractor will appoint human resources tasked with compiling a tender submission based upon the tender enquiry. One of the main individual in this team is the person accountable for producing the tender programme, the construction planner. Whether or not the contractual terms require a programme to be produced or not should be irrelevant at this stage. The tender programme is an important document produced by the contractor which is used for measuring many risk and cost related issues. In particular, the assessment of cost of the contractors time related preliminary items as drawn off the content of the tender programme. For example, the anticipated on site durations for different members of staff, periods of scaffold hire and duration for site accommodation are items that cannot be priced by the estimator without reference to the tender programme. When compiling the tender programme, the construction planner must incorporate the information supplied with the enquiry noting any specified constraints contained in either the contract bills, specification or drawings. Conflict between documents often exists and a view had to be taken on how to proceed. Clarification may be sought from the employer or his agents, assumptions made and stated along with the submission or the conflict may be ignored and the information that best suits the contractor is assumed without qualification or statement. It is accepted in the industry that many bids are won or lost on the programme duration alone. This happens frequently where a bill of quantities is being priced and the experienced contractors tend towards similar prime cost for similar items. On completion of reviewing tender documents, drawings, specification and bills, which may be typically done over a period of one or two weeks, the construction planner will establish the work scope which will be addressed in the creation of a tender programme. The main objective is to be aware of the specified period for construction. Additional to the completed programme should be a schedule of resources which corresponds with the programme and a series of method statements signifying construction techniques and equipment to be employed in carrying out the work. 2.8 Programming on Site When the contract is won, the site planning is equally important. It is usually at this point that the site manager will have his first chance to examine the methods on which the job was priced. What is important to recognise, at this point, is that planning must be seen as an addition to management. Thus the site manager must have the right to question the planning methods on which the contract was priced. To do so, site managers require the technical expertise to assess what has been put forward. In so doing, the manager concerned must, for his part, accept that if he wants to change the method from that in the priced tender, he must demonstrate that his alternative is obviously cheaper, or at least as cheap, as that priced in the tender submission. When final agreement has been reached, the planning function can be established on site and develop the final method to be adopted. This, in turn, will lead to the contract master programme and such subsidiary programmes as may be necessary. On completion of all methods being confirmed the construction planner continues to have a significant role on site. First, in developing control and short-term programmes for all organisations contributing to the contract under the main or managing contractor. Second, the construction planners cherished knowledge of how the work was originally planned makes him uniquely placed to examine the potential consequences of alterations to what has to be built. In this area he is a valuable source of information to the site quantity surveyor when assessing where possible contractural claims may arise. Today, with the ever increasing use of trade sub-contractors as well as specialist service contractors, the experienced construction planner has the option of either seeing the role as satisfying its own right, or as an essential ingredient of experience for becoming a successful site manager. Illingworth (1993). 2.9 Purpose of a Programme The values applicable to the mechanics of construction planning are similar whether you are a main contractor submitting a quotation to an employer, a sub-contractor quoting to the main contractor, or even a construction manager providing programme assist to an employer. Common principles apply when compiling a construction programme, that of methodical analysis. The contractors construction programme is an important common reference. It shows how the planner they have interpreted the contract documents and other information from which the statement of intent for construction is issued. As the key programme for the construction work, its content is of the utmost significance to all parties charged with handing over to the employer a building fit for purpose within the contract time stated. A well prepared programme is vital to every construction project. Many activities have to be cautiously defined and given a time scale, and it necessary not only to assemble and list the information but also to display it visually in terms of the contracts objectives and the calendar. The working sequences and the relationships between individual activities must be clearly conveyed in this visual presentation. The Chartered Institute of Building (2001). They consider the construction programme to be a statement of intended actions, which when properly used provides management with its plan of campaign. It should communicate with ease, providing the common reference for the timing of all activities related to the project. 2.10 Construction Planning Software An expert planner faced with the task of producing and analysing a network for a project containing only few activities will undoubtedly produce the fastest results by drawing a freehand arrow diagram and analysing it mentally. Lock (2007). He believes it is likely to take longer when using a computer because of the formalities needed to set up the new project files in the system and enter the data. David Arditi and Ann Rackas compiled a short report in May of 1986 with an aim in ascertaining the need for computer software to assist is construction planning and scheduling. This report concluded, the individual needs of a given construction company are the primary reasons for choosing a particular software package. For example, one of the participating general contractors basic requirements was to have a 40-character activity description field: a particularly individual need. They continued to suggest if a program is to survive the inevitable shakeout that occurs after the initial development and interest have peaked; it must offer the features and capacities that are required by the user. In addition, every effort should be made to make computers less mysterious and confusing as they will be dealing with the construction market. Today there are many planning software packages available to the construction industry. Asta Powerproject, Microsoft Project, Primavera, PERT Master to name a few. Each package is commonly suited to the individual needs of the planner. Some programs present a blank Gantt chart on the screen as soon as they are booted up, and it is apparent to the user that task data can be typed in immediately. Most programs allow the user/ planner to establish project durations, critical path network, allocate resources, assign costs to tasks and monitor progress throughout the project. As a result, most construction planning professionals use such packages daily. 2.11 Construction Planning Challenges Lock (2007) considers anyone planning a project of significant size will soon find out that there are a number of factors, both inside and outside the project organisation that can have an effect on the planners intentions. These are as follows: 2.11.1 External Factors Figure 2.8 External Factors (Lock, 2007) All projects are subject to risk, many of which can have an enormous impact on plans. Lock (2007) deems the following are just four from the long catalogue of happenings that can be categorised as Acts of God: An earthquake devastates a project organisations headquarters. A hurricane and flood put a project site under a metre of water and delay the start or ruin the work in progress. An influenza epidemic puts half the project workforce out of action. (Swine flu outbreak 2008 recorded thousands of people off work for over 5 days.) The project manager (a keen golfer) is struck by lightning. The national government can play an important part on the smooth running of a project. E.g. the project could be government-funded and is cancelled or abandoned through a political decision. Lock (2007) also considers less immediate concerns which are the wider and longer-term economic consequences of government policy leading to downscaling of projects, delays and cancellations in all sectors of industry. Decisions made outside the project team can also have an affect on many characteristics of planning. E.g. a decision is made at directorate level to carry out a project in a different company within the group from that initially anticipated or a strategic decision is made to cut short all new staff recruitment resulting in a lower number of available resources formerly expected to be available for projects. 2.11.2 Working Factors Figure 2.9 Working Factors Lock (2007) These are items which are likely to affect the project team on a daily basis. Examples include availability of resources, materials etc. People are believed to be a construction organisations greatest resource. Construction operations depend on the knowledge and skills of people planning and executing the work. Muir (2005.) Research has been carried out to reveal that the construction industry is typically viewed as being one of the least attractive industries in which to work. Safety plays an important part in the running of a project. Construction by nature is unsurprisingly dangerous with a high degree of hazard and risk. The Health Safety Executive believe each year: Over 1 million injuries and 2.3 million cases of ill-health are experienced by workers; Around 40 million working days are to lost; and Over 25000 individuals are forced to give up work because of injury or ill health. These cost British employers on average  £3.3 to  £6.5 billion each year. Most organisations are oblivious of these figures and are often astonished to find out what the actual costs are. Recent HSE Examples (2009) An injury to a worker using an unguarded drill cost a small engineering company  £45,000. And that was not all. The managing director was prosecuted from which two employees had to be made redundant to keep the company afloat. At the other end of the scale the Piper Alpha explosion killed 167 people and incurred estimated costs of over  £2 billion. Accidents in construction can account for 3 6 % of total project costs. 2.11.3 Contribution of effective Planning Figure 2.10 Contributors of effective Planning (Lock, 2007). Effective Planning and scheduling influences the results of a project as is promotes well-organised working. Personnel who are not trying continually to overcome crises caused by bad planning can dedicate more time to achieving high quality standards. A well-planned project stands more chance of being completed on time and on budget. 3.0 Methodology Based on the findings in Chapter Two, a questionnaire was compiled aimed towards Construction Planners, Project Managers and other Construction Professionals. The questionnaire was developed in order to reach a significant conclusion on what is happening in the industry today, confirming what challenges are faced on a day to day basis and what can be done for improvement. The author contacted various professionals in the industry whom were contacted via Chartered Institute of Building website in order to get a mixed response. A letter was sent to each individual asking if they could spare time to answer 20 questions which were related to the research. The letter can be found in appendix. In addition, an online link to the questionnaire was sent to over 40 professionals in the industry, from which over 23 people took the time to fill it in. All results can be found in Chapter 4. 3.1 Introduction The aim of this study is to analyse current planning techniques used within the construction industry and determine what influence the construction programme has in terms of project success. In order to achieve this aim, sufficient research has to be carried out. Research design is an action plan for getting from here to there, where here may be defined as the initial set of questions to be answered, and there is some set of conclusion (answers) about these questions. (Naoum 2007.) Between here and there may be a found number of major steps, including the collection of analysis of relevant data. (Yin 1994.) Developing a successful strategy was an important step towards the collection of key research information. 3.2 Research Strategy Research is the systematic and rigorous process of enquiry which aims to describe phenomena and to develop and test explanatory concepts and theories. Ultimately it aims to contribute to a scientific body of knowledge. (Bowling 2009.) There are two types of research strategies, namely, quantitative research and qualitative research. Deciding on which type of researc

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Political Economy in Post-1949 China Essay

Social Science Approach to the Study of Political Economy in Post-1949 China In order to understand the political economy of China in post 1949, The Great Leap Forward, this essay will discuss three key points.   It will start with examining the theories and concepts.   Then it will evaluate the literature and online resources from Western and Chinese (translated) sources.   And lastly, it will look at the problems of research methodology. Theories and Concepts Theories and concepts about the political economy of China after the 1949 revolution revolve around who will take control of the Chinese Government and solve the economic problems of the country.   Chinese leaderships, which is consisted by Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, Chen Yun, and Chu Teh, consolidated power quickly moved apparently to gain the confidence of Chinese population.   In order to resolve the economic problems, especially food shortage and high food prices, they need to reestablish the social relationships in the countryside to gain their support and produce larger quantities of agricultural products.   Here enters a new concept – the restructuring of and implementations policies. [1] The Great Leap Forward was a new approach that was believed by the Chinese leaders to concurrently grow modern and traditional sectors – industrialization and agriculture. This new approach did not actually balanced the two sectors rather it only gives both of them the importance. More importance was still given to investment but unlike in Soviet model, the Great Leap Forward did not concentrate on few lines of investment. Making the investment lines for them was pushing the ceiling upward. On the other hand, agriculture was given an added importance. Under the new approach, labor was the idea to substitute capital. Likewise, another idea was to substitute surplus labor to capital formation. These two ideas were conceptually based on labor absorption and employment generating effects of industrialization. Under the Great Leap Forward, the solution imposed by the Chinese leaders was creation of communes. Communes are the state-feudalism form of solution thought by the leaders. According to Gabriel in 1998, the prevalence of the communist fundamental class process is reflected in communes. This happens because of the main reason that institutions are being created in communes. However, communes were not achieved. Collective appropriate and distribution of the surplus product made within the enterprise by the direct producers was .implied in the process. In effect, the workers had no power to control their collective surplus. Another reflection is that unlike in capitalism, workers are paid according to the number of hours and days they give their service. Therefore, capitalist institutions were not communes. Workers from the rural settings worked with obligations. The government was the one made the appointment of the commune management. It was during the later period of the Great Leap Forward when all the management is all from the urban. The government is the institution that controls the surplus from the communes. The feudal relationship reflected in this scenario between the government and the workers was the obligation of the workers to work in communes. The government was reflected as the feudal lord during the approach in the Great Leap Forward. From communism, CPC wanted to transform the country to socialism. Socialism is the social state between communism and capitalism. The exact meaning of Socialism was not understood in China. In fact, its meaning had liberty on different interpretations. For instance, the construction of socialism by the Soviet Union means rapid industrialization and strict centralization. On the other hand, leader Mao Zedong viewed socialism as intellectual foundation of the left-wing of the CPC.   The difference on the vision of Mao Zedong on socialism required the wholesale destruction of pre-revolutionary institutions. According to Mao, feudal lords and social structure had to be removed. For Mao, new political, cultural, and economic order must be created. In addition, Mao’s proposal requires new people’s army.   Accordingly, the proposal also requires the jurisdiction of the people’s court that must at all level. Lastly, the association of peasant must be all the way through the countryside and considering the workers, a well established council in industrial enterprises is also needed. The revolutionary transformation proposed by Mao was followed by their government. Lands from feudal lords were taken possession of, and farmers gained more control on their productive capacity. There was also a better market for economic and social exchange. The communist party officials aimed for every Chinese village to have its cadres. This was part of the agenda of the government to encourage greater cooperation among farmers. The party still feared the intervention of foreign countries. In effect of this approach, the central authorities provided eyes and ears within the countryside. Accordingly, the approach the government gave the rural producers available markets for their products. Those policies of the government were essential in achieving the goal of unifying China under a central authority. The land reform significantly reduced hunger and malnutrition in the countryside of China. This was proved after the implementation of the revolutionary transformation. There were no significant detrimental impacts of feudal lords after the lands were confiscated. Accordingly, rural farmers were able to put better use of their resources and its reproductive potential. Through elimination of feudal lands, the excess/surplus output was allowed to be invested. If they were not invested, they were used to finance the new social institutions and public goods. Consequently, life and work of rural direct producers were made easier. More so, increase in the living standard due to the revolutionary transformation was delivered and reached many rural direct producers and their families.   Incomes of the rural direct producers were improved by the significant improvement of the products they were producing. In general, nourishment, clothing, shelter and health in line with production were achieved by the rural community. In accordance to the revolutionary change, the expansion in the role of women in economic and political life was given importance and improvement. The state recognized both labor coming from males and females. For the state, both labors are valued in the national economy of China. In 1953, Mao proposed the Five-Year Economic Plan or the FYEP via the central plan. Under the plan, production quotas were expected but no quality standards were required. Consequently, the impact on demand was negative. According to Gabriel, â€Å"the motivation system created significant waste of inputs, unhappy consumers, unhappy wage laborers, and unhappy rural direct producers.† [2] In addition, the government bureaucrats were unhappy due to the failure of their plan. During the recognition of the failure of the plan, Mao called for a movement. The liberty in expressing unhappiness of the Chinese public was collectively joined through the â€Å"Hundred Flowers Movement†. The second Five-Year Economic Plan or the SFYEP were then taken advantage of Mao and his fraction. Literature Review Like other literature about China, literature about this theme on political economy of post 1949 China were mostly written by Western people.   Thus, it is more on Western perspective.   And like any historical data, literature about this topic is mostly descriptive. There are few that are analytical in nature and that could be found in the form essays.   And because it is more on descriptions and chronology of the events, it failed to give the deeper overview of the essence of the topic in history. Likewise, there are literatures that are either biased or shortened.   An example is the article about the Chinese Leader Mao Zedong.   Many writers wrote Mao who was accused of â€Å"Famine Death†. One-sided story was delivered and presented in the Chinese public. Only the problems that occurred during 1959 until 1961 were understood by them. The relationship between success and failures were not given. There was improvement in the life of the Chinese public that should be recognized along with socialism. The methodologies of the research conducted in proving Mao’s accusation of famine death were biased and shortened. Deaths due to natural disasters were accountable on what the people and other research claimed to be Mao’s failure on implementation of policy. Policy error during the Mao’s regime was what the common research claimed. According to Ball (2006), â€Å"millions of lives of Chinese people were saved.†[3] More or less 16.5 Million Chinese people were recorded in official Chinese sources. The release was in line with the ideological campaign against the inheriting the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. The problem and issue on validity of the figures presented were questionable. There is anonymity on how the data were gathered. In addition, data and its preservation also seek for validity.   The sources and figures which claimed the statistical count for the death during the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution were released only twenty years after it happened. This figures and sources were obtained from the researches conducted by America, in which, as stated by Joseph Ball in his article, the American researchers increased the figure by 30 million – a combination of Chinese evidence with their own speculations from China’s censuses.’[4] Ball used statistics from China’s census and was able to gather the true figure. He also used other publications like Jung Chang and Jon Halliday’s book. In their book â€Å"Mao: the Unknown Story†, it was reported there that 38 million deaths from the Great Leap Forward was included in the total of 70 million Chinese people who were killed by Mao during his regime. The controversy regarding the origins of Chinese communism has not been completely resolved but nonetheless ended as the government strengthens the revolutionary struggle.   The generation of the specialists who followed and are much more trained as social scientists than historians, faced the challenge of documenting the Chinese communism development which, in many respects, is similar to its Soviet predecessors.[5] Those who are in contemporary Chinese studies field faced another controversy when the event of Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution which came along with communism perspective needed to be explained.   There are renewed interests and disagreements as well which aroused over the continuing importance of indigenous political traditions.  Ã‚   This was debated by the scholars who are trained with the growing field of political science, and attached with the modernization principles. [6] There are materials written guided by a singular theoretical framework to critique the Marxian theory that shapes the political and economic strategies of the Communist Party of China or CPC.   One of the most serious flaws of Chinese literature which attempts to explain the post 1049 China is illiteracy on Marxian theory of most Chinese who study the Chinese civilization, literature and language.  Ã‚   There is a failure in the knowledge of the differences between various forms of Marxian theory that have deployed and contested in China.   And there are materials which are used in the attempt to make up with these flaws.   These materials provide a critique of ‘modernist Marxism’ in the CPC style, and its rationale for maintaining monopoly control over China.   [7] Methodology Problems There is indeed a problem in research about this topic.   This is due to limited resources that are really reliable to contain facts.   And since it is written on descriptive and chronological manner, our analyses are limited to our understanding, our culture and environment. Going back to the example we gave about Mao, the flaws on the research conducted by the Western focused only on the excesses of the policy during Mao’s regime. These excesses on the policy were then exaggerated. In addition, the researchers did not grasp a thorough understanding on how some policies were developed and for what purpose. Therefore, the understanding on how Chinese people were benefitted by those policies was not understood and was not accounted in the research the western made. Evidences from the peasants were entirely different from the claim of the researches presented by the western. The statistics of the deaths during Dao’s regime were supported by the Chinese census. Only a pure and unbiased research can obtain the true figures and conclusion. However, there are scholars who are not Chinese, who take time to study China through observations, living with the Chinese people, interviewing them especially the rural people, and visit different cities and towns.   These ways of research and study are useful, although there is also a problem when it comes to language.   We know that language is a soul of the country’s culture.   There are parts of the language that change in meaning when you translate in other language.   In here, the flaw comes on the real meaning of the context. Moreover, there is a continuing effort in many scholars in changing the approach of writing and discussing about the history in general.   Their attempts hope to instill critical analysis and more explorations in different context of China. Bibliography Ball, Joseph, ‘Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?’   A Monthly Review, 23 September 2006, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Cheng, Chu-Yuan, ‘The Economy of Communist China, 1949-1969: With a Bibliography of Selected Materials on Chinese Economic Development’, Questia Media America Inc., 1971, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Gabriel, Satya J, ‘The Structure of a Post-Revolutionary Economic Transformation:The Chinese Economy from the 1949 Revolution to the Great Leap Forward,’ Satya Gabriel’s Online Papers: China Essay Series,  1998, retrieved 5 Novemebr 2007, . Gabriel, Satya J, ‘Chinese Capitalism and the Modernist Vision,’ China Essay Series, 2007, retrieved 13 November 2007, . Harding, Harry, ‘Organizing China: The Problem of Bureaucracy, 1949-1976,’ Harry Harding; Stanford University Press, 1981, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Joseph, William, ‘A Tragedy of Good Intentions: Post-Mao Views of the Great Leap Forward,’ Modern China, 12; 419. SAGE Journals Online and HighWire Press platforms, 1986, retrieved   5 November 2007, . Lee, Hong Yung, The Politics of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, Berekeley: Univ. of California Press (1978). Li, Shaomin, ‘Transforming China: Economic Reform and Its Political Implications,’ China Economic Condition 1949 1976 (2003) 10, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Richman, Barry M, ‘Industrial Society in Communist China: China–Economic Conditions–1949-1976,’ Random House, 1969, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Schram, S, The Thought of Mao Tse-Tung. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1989). The Columbia Encyclopedia, ‘China,’ Encyclopedia article; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 52323  pgs, 2004, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Perry, Elizabeth J, ‘Introduction: Chinese Political Culture Revisited,’ Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China, Second Edition, retrieved 13 November 2007, . [1] Gabriel, Satya J, ‘The Structure of a Post-Revolutionary Economic Transformation:The Chinese Economy from the 1949 Revolution to the Great Leap Forward,’ Satya Gabriel’s Online Papers: China Essay Series,  1998, retrieved 5 Novemebr 2007, . [2] Gabriel, The Structure of a Post-Revolutionary Economic Transformation: The Chinese Economy from the 1949 Revolution to the Great Leap Forward [3] Ball, Joseph, ‘Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?’   A Monthly Review, 23 September 2006, retrieved 5 November 2007, . [4] Ball, Joseph, Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward? [5] Perry, Elizabeth J, ‘Introduction: Chinese Political Culture Revisited,’ Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China, Second Edition, retrieved 13 November 2007, . [6] Perry, Elizabeth J,   Introduction: Chinese Political Culture Revisited. [7] Gabriel, Satya J, ‘Chinese Capitalism and the Modernist Vision,’ China Essay Series, 2007, retrieved 13 November 2007, .

Sunday, November 10, 2019


PROBLEMA 1 The Maser is a new custom-designed sports car. An analysis of the task of building the Maser reveals the following list of relevant activities, their immediate predecessors, and their duration. Job LetterDescriptionImmediate Predecessor(s)Normal Time (days) AStart — 0 BDesignA8 COrder special accessoriesB0. 1 DBuild frameB1 EBuild doorsB1 FAttach axles, wheels, gas tankD1 GBuild body shellB2 HBuild transmission and drivetrainB3 IFit doors to body shellG, E1 JBuild engine B4 KBench-test engineJ2 LAssemble chassisF, H, K1MRoad-test chassisL0. 5 NPaint bodyI2 OInstall wiringN1 PInstall interiorN1. 5 QAccept delivery of special accessoriesC5 RMount body and accessories on chassisM, O, P, Q1 SRoad test carR0. 5 TAttach exterior trimS1 UFinishT0 a)Draw a network diagram for the project. b)Mark the critical path and state its length. c)If the Maser has to be completed 2 days earlier, would it help to i. Buy preassembled transmissions and drivetrains? ii. Install robots to halve engine-building time? iii. Speed delivery of special accessories by 3 days? )How might resources be borrowed from activities on the non-critical path to speed activities on the critical path? PROBLEMA 2 MANAGING HARD ROCK’S ROCKFEST At the Hard Rock Cafe, like many organizations, project management is a key planning tool. With Hard Rock’s constant growth in hotels and cafes, remodeling of existing cafes, scheduling for Hard Rock Live concert and event venues, and planning the annual Rockfest, managers rely on project management techniques and software to maintain schedule and budget performance. Without Microsoft Project† says Hard Rock Vice-President Chriss Tomasso, â€Å"there is no way to keep so many people on the same page. † Tomasso is in charge of the Rockfest event, which is attended by well over 100,000 enthusiastic fans. The challenge is pulling it off within a tight 9-month planning horizon. As the event approaches, Tomasso devotes greater energy to its activities. For the first 3 months, Tomasso updates his MS Project charts monthly. Then at the 6-month mark, he updates his progress weekly. At the 9-month mark, he checks and corrects his schedule twice a week.Early in the project management process, Tomasso identifies 10 major tasks (called 2 acti vities in a work breakdown structure, or WBS): talent booking, ticketing, marketing/PR, online promotion, television, show production, travel, sponsorships, operations, and merchandising. Using a WBS, each of these is further divided into a series of subtasks. Table 1 identifies 26 of the major activities and subactivities, their immediate predecessors, and time estimates. Tomasso enters all of these into the MS Project software. Tomasso alters the MS Project document and the time line as the project progresses. It’s okay to change it as long as you keep on track. † he states. The day of the rock concert itself is not the end of the project planning. â€Å"It ’s nothing but surprises. A band not being able to get to the venue because of traffic jams is a surprise, but an ‘anticipated’ surprise. We had an helicopter on stand-by ready to fly the band in,† says Tomasso. On completion of Rockfest in July, Tomasso and his team have a 3-month reprieve before starting the project planning process again. Discussion Questions: 1. Identify the critical path and its activities for Rockfest. How long does the project take? . Which activities have a slack time of 8 weeks or more? 3. Identify five major challenges a project manager faces in events such as this one. 4. Why is a work breakdown structure useful in a project such as this? Take the 26 activities and break them into what you think should be level 2, level 3 and level 4 tasks. TABLE 1 Some of the Major Activities and Subactivities in the Rockfest Plan. ActivityDescriptionImmediate Predecessor(s) Time (Weeks) AFinalize site and building contracts —7 BSelect lo cal promoterA3 CHire production managerA3 DDesign promotional Web siteB5 ESet TV dealD6FHire directorE4 GPlan for TV camera placementF2 HTarget headline entertainersB4 ITarget support entertainersH4 JTravel accomodations for talentI10 KSet venue cpacityC2 LTicketmaster contractD, K3 MOn-site ticketingL8 NSound and stagingC6 OPasses and stage credentialsG, R7 PTravel accomodations for staffB20 QHire sponsor coordinatorB4 RFinalize sponsorsQ4 SDefine/place signage for sponsorsR, X3 THire operations managerA4 UDevelop site planT6 VHire security directorT7 WSet police/fire security planV4 XPower, plumbing, AC, toilet servicesU8 YSecure merchandise dealsB6 ZOnline merchadise salesY6