Friday, May 31, 2019

What It Is To Be Human :: essays research papers

What It Is To Be HumanThe body is socially constructed and in this paper we explore the various andever-changing constructions of the body, and thus of the embodied self......Theone word, body, may thence signify very different realities and perceptionsof reality.....(Synnot 1992, 43)It has been said that in order to understand life and society, we aspeople must first understand ourselves. Who are we as a people? Who are we asindividuals? Who are we as humans? These questions all present themselves whendiscussing a topic such as this. I take that it is indeed important to askquestions such as these, and also as important to answer them. All of thisassuming of course, that there is one specific answer. My riddle begins here,in that I do not believe that there is one defined answer to these questions.As you will see, many "great philosophic minds" make up different views and beliefsrelating to these questions, and it is my job to sort through these differentbeliefs and disc over...... What it is to be human     It seems that for ages the human body has been studied and inspected.However, literal "inspection" only takes us so far. As humans, we all know thatthere are parts of our "being" that are in obvious. Take thoughts, dreams, andthings of the like. We know they exist, yet they are unable to be inspectedscientifically (to any valuable degree at least). The distinction betweenbeliefs begins here. How one views this intangible side of life with respect tothe tangible, is the factor that defines ones beliefs.     There are several(prenominal) ways in which one may view the body. A dualist is onewho views the body and mind, or tangible and intangible, as two separateintities existing unitedly to form one being. The principle of "Cogito, ergosum," or in english, "I think, therefore I am." The "I" meaning the mind, and"I am" meaning the body. (Synnott 1992, 92) The ta ngible side of the personbeing bound of course, by the laws of biomechanics and gravity, and theintangible being bound by nothing but the laws of reasoning.".....the body, from its nature, is always divisible and the mind is in allindivisible." (Descartes 1995, 70)     Like anything, dualism comes with its pros and cons. Many peoplechoose to believe in the idea of dualism because of its truths. Obviously, wecan all see that indeed, the body is real and tangible, and that the mind on the some other hand is the intangible, although it too is real. Likewise, as evidence ofdualism we have undoubtedly felt the physical as well as the non-physical.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Essay --

IntroductionToday, in that location are many a(prenominal) different types of mental illnesses known throughout the world i.e. bipolar disease, schizophrenia, paranoia, post-traumatic nidus disorder, panic disorder, ect. and many people who are able to diagnose such illnesses when symptoms are shown throughout a person What about back in the 1600s though, when such illnesses werent even known yet? In Shakespeares play Macbeth, for example, Macbeth showed many signs of what today would be diagnosed as symptoms of schizophrenia, but he had no idea, nor did anyone around him, they mediocre thought he was going insane. What is schizophrenia one might ask? Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder that distorts the counseling a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others (Joseph Goldberg). SymptomsMedline plus tells us that there are three major symptoms of the disorder non being able to distinguish the difference among fantasy and reality, incoherent conversations, and withdrawal physically and emotionally. The most common and most well-known symptom of schizophrenia is when people cannot distinguish between what is real and what is not Schizophrenics often suffer from delusions and hallucinations. A delusion is a belief that is not true and a hallucination is seeing, hearing, or sensing something that is not really there Macbeth is considered a schizophrenic because he possesses all of the symptoms said above. Background informationAccording to, schizophrenia can be traced to the old Pharaonic Egypt, as outlying(prenominal) back as the second millennium forrader Christ. At one point in history, all people who were considered abnormal, whether due to mental illn... ... of her womb before she could actually give birth, Macbeth then comes out of his delusional state, and we realize that everything he did was because of the witches, and that they made him go crazy and become a schizophrenic (Shakespeare 213). ConclusionApparitions, eternally bloody hands, and ghosts all sound like key elements to a nightmarish dream. Imagine not being able to tell if these things were real or just a figment of your imagination and youll know the position that Macbeth was in. In Shakespeares Macbeth, Macbeth show signs of what would today be diagnosed as symptoms of schizophrenia. He became detached from reality and talk in crazy incoherent sentence fragments. Though they were not able to identify Macbeths mental illness during Shakespeares time, now after many years of research, it seems very certain that he was most likely a schizophrenic.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee - Reflection :: To Kill a Mockingbird Essays

To vote out a Mockingbird ReflectionWritten in the late 1950s to early 1960s, To Kill a Mockingbird in some ways reflects the state of its society. The complaisant Rights Movement was occurring at the time, a fight for human freedom, extending the rights of full citizenship to individuals regardless of race, sex, or creed and the slowly emerging impression of equal rights for all. Although set in the 1930s, it has come to my attention that the book strongly mirrors its context and was greatly influenced by the values and beliefs of the people at the time.To Kill a Mockingbird in my opinion doesnt represent a true 1930s. It contains many main characters such as Calpurnia and Atticus who fuddle morality and personalities that I felt out-step the time period. These qualities seem to originate from the essence of The Civil Rights Movement instead. In the 1930s an African American woman wouldnt have had so much power over white children like Calpurnia had over Scout and Jem, and pe ople like Atticus who were sympathetic to the African Americans would have had no(prenominal) of the support Atticus had with Heck Tate, Mr. Underwood, just to name a few, the way he did. Perhaps I feel this way because of the novels overall localize on casting Atticus as morally correct and racial prejudice as something terribly immoral, which were rather new concepts introduced to America during The Civil Rights Movement. The insights into the lives of the African Americans, contrasted with the more flawed white community (with its many not so pleasant members such as the Ewells) in Maycomb, cast a warmer weakly onto the black community. This representation I think reflects the changing views of the people in the novels context and the challenge against racial prejudice that was the core of The Civil Rights Movement. In the 1930s there would have been nothing wrong with what today we recognise as racial prejudice, in fact it would have been the some other way around with showi ng prejudice as the morally correct thing to do for a proper white person.Though prejudice to African Americans was still very much an issue throughout the novels context. This can be seen through the likeness of Tom Robinsons trial and the disseminated multiple sclerosis Burning trails. In both these cases I noted that a white persons word has prevailed over a black mans based on the notion that one race is superior than the other.

Puritans and Puritanism Essay -- American History

Puritans and PuritanismThis essay addresses the questions What is Puritanism. What is the meaning of puritanism in American invoice? What is the powder compact as Puritans understood it. How were their root words about the Covenant applied to their experience in America?Puritanism is one of the most important aspects of the American culture. Many of this countrys beliefs come from puritanism background. What is Puritanism and the meaning of it in American history?Puritanism is a term that originates from the religious group called the Puritans. They were a denomination formed by the great Protestant Reformation in Europe. They were known as nonconformists and dissenters because of their refusal to submit to the Church of England. Because of this, the Puritans and their theology soon died out in Europe. However, the puritan ideas and beliefs flourished in the New World. Puritanism starts with the theology of the Puritans. head start they believed in the sovereignty of God. That is, only God had the highest power or rank. This meant that a man did not have the power to hold authority over new(prenominal) men. In essence, this belief coincides with the concept of the divine nature of kings. The English monarchy wanted its people to believe that the king was appointed by God Himself. Therefore, the king was amenable only to God. The first concept of Puritanism states that all Christian men are responsible only to God. Another concept of puritanism and probably the most important is the idea of Salvation by Grace. In Puritan theology, God created mankind and cosmos. He gave mankind a beautiful garden to live, the Garden of Eden. Unfortunately, mankind committed repulsiveness and was banished. However God, sent His grace to mankind. He gave His... ... was to give African slaves their freedom. Then, there was the westward movement to expand land. During the 20th century, the United States fought to protect the world from the Axis, the Communists, and the Iraqis . In each case, America has always had this special mission which they fulfilled sometimes using questionable methods. We can see how puritanism relates to the beliefs of America by studying the history of America. And we can see the prominent role puritanism has played to American society. Just look at the remnants of the Indian culture. Using the name of God, the Americans stole their land, wiped out their people, and ruined their culture. Perhaps the sovereignty of God isnt such a good idea after all. It seems as though with no authority to answer to withdraw God, America was able to do almost anything and state that it was for the greater good.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Dramatic Techniques in Shirley Valentine by Willy Russell :: Shirley Valentine Willy Russell Essays

Dramatic Techniques in Shirley Valentine by Willy RussellHow do the dramatic techniques use in the undertake encourage the audience to understand the impressiveness of Shirleys transformation? You should refer to the significance of the plays social and historical (settings, attitudes to womenSHIRLEY VALENTINETask How do the dramatic techniques use in the play help the audienceto understand the importance of Shirleys transformation? You shouldrefer to the significance of the plays social and historical(settings, attitudes to women, attitudes to marriage, expectations oflife, etc) context and the literary context (kitchen-sink drama,comedy, tragedy, drama, etc).The play Shirley Valentine was written by Willy Russell. Russell wasborn in 1976, near Liverpool. He left school when he was fifteen anddid a variety of jobs before becoming a writer. Originally he used tobe a songwriter, performing in his late teens. By the time he wastwenty he decided to conk a playwright rather than his desiredoption of teaching. In his first eighteen months schools loved hiswork and he decided that he was successful comme il faut to do it fulltime.Shirley Valentine, is the fable of a middle age woman living inLiverpool and her change in life. Russell explores the usage ofdifferent dramatic techniques to tell a complex story. We the audienceare in contact with Shirley from the beginning, because she talks tothe camera. This forms a friendship between Shirley and the audience.We become her confidante. Other dramatic techniques used by theplaywright are the use of Flashbacks and Voiceovers. In flashbacksShirley would be doing something and would drift off talking aboutsomething that had happened earlier on in the day or a preceding(prenominal) day,so we would get all the background information, on what has been goingon. It also highlights the important events in her life to presentation us howshe got to this point in her life. In Voiceovers Shirley would expressher true feelings about someone whilst they would be talking about thething that Shirley is expressing her feelings about.The opening credits depict a series of fifteen sketches that showShirley doing her e trulyday routine of domestic chores, with noenthusiasm. Shirley if cleaning and cooking, this tells us what herlife is like, boring. You could see that she is tired of living outher life in an ordinary marriage, with very little going on, she hasall this Unfulfilled Potential which she desperately wants tooverturn. The words of the soundtrack are very cleverly adapted to thesketches shown. They tell the everyday life story of a woman that has

Dramatic Techniques in Shirley Valentine by Willy Russell :: Shirley Valentine Willy Russell Essays

Dramatic Techniques in Shirley Valentine by Willy RussellHow do the dramatic techniques use in the play help the audience to understand the importance of Shirleys transformation? You should refer to the significance of the plays favorable and historical (settings, attitudes to womenSHIRLEY VALENTINETask How do the dramatic techniques use in the play help the audienceto understand the importance of Shirleys transformation? You shouldrefer to the significance of the plays social and historical(settings, attitudes to women, attitudes to marriage, expectations of brio, etc) context and the literary context (kitchen-sink drama,comedy, tragedy, drama, etc).The play Shirley Valentine was written by Willy Russell. Russell wasborn in 1976, near Liverpool. He left school when he was xv anddid a variety of jobs before becoming a writer. Originally he used tobe a songwriter, performing in his late teens. By the conviction he wastwenty he decided to amaze a playwright rather than his desiredo ption of teaching. In his first eighteen months schools loved his cook and he decided that he was successful enough to do it fulltime.Shirley Valentine, is the story of a middle age woman backup inLiverpool and her change in life. Russell explores the usage ofdifferent dramatic techniques to tell a complex story. We the audienceare in contact with Shirley from the beginning, because she talks tothe camera. This forms a friendship between Shirley and the audience.We become her confidante. Other dramatic techniques used by theplaywright are the use of Flashbacks and Voiceovers. In flashbacksShirley would be doing something and would drift off talking aboutsomething that had happened earlier on in the day or a previous day,so we would get all the background information, on what has been goingon. It also highlights the important events in her life to show us howshe got to this point in her life. In Voiceovers Shirley would expressher true feelings about someone whilst they would be tal king about thething that Shirley is expressing her feelings about.The opening credit depict a series of fifteen sketches that showShirley doing her everyday routine of domestic chores, with noenthusiasm. Shirley if cleaning and cooking, this tells us what herlife is like, boring. You could see that she is tired of living outher life in an ordinary marriage, with very little going on, she hasall this Unfulfilled Potential which she desperately wants tooverturn. The words of the soundtrack are very smartly adapted to thesketches shown. They tell the everyday life story of a woman that has

Monday, May 27, 2019

Evaluation Tv in My Country (Uk)

TV in my Country There are two primary(prenominal) purposes of TV educating/informing people and entertaining people. In this essay, I will look at how well TV in Britain, my country, achieves those purposes. The first purpose of TV is to inform and educate viewers. TV stations should regularly present national and international news. In addition, they should educate people about current affairs, health, history and science. British TV stations have regular news coverage. They also have several furnishs that discuss the economy, politics and other current affairs issues, such as the BBCs Question Time.In addition, there are several good shows about health matters. For example, I recently saw a program called Healthwatch on the BBC which communicate viewers on how to reduce the risk of getting heart disease. What is more, there are some excellent programs about history on the BBC 2. To illustrate, last week I saw a program about Alexander the Great, which included many interesting facts about his life. For instance, he never lost a warfare in his life, and he started leading his army at the age of 16. Lastly, British TV has some excellent science shows. For example, two days ago I watched a program called Survival which is about nature.It showed how tigers look after their babies. Consequently, you flush toilet see from the above information that British TV stations are actually effective at informing and educating viewers. Another purpose of TV is to entertain viewers. Good entertainment includes comedy shows, drama, movies, music shows and sports programs. British TV shows often show excellent comedy shows such as Friends. Furthermore, there are many drama shows, movies and music shows on British TV. For example, a popular show is enthronement Street which is a soap opera about the travels of ordinary people.British TV also has some excellent shows on sport. For example Match of the Day is a show which discusses the highlights of football matches that took place earlier in the day. However, there are very few live football games on British TV. Therefore, I can say that British TV performs very well at entertaining people. On the other hand, I would be happy if there were more live football games. In short, British TV is excellent at its purpose of educating and informing viewers. It is also generally effective at entertaining people. However, there should be more live football games.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

EBooks vs. Traditional Books Essay

I consider comp ard and contrasted eBooks and traditional books. There are many similarities on these different kinds of books as well as many differences. Reading is one of the most important things that have an impact on peoples life. Technology now has excessively made an impact on books. Now there are e-readers like kindle, nook, and IPad. The first kind of book is the EBooks. There are many positive things to the highest degree the e Books. E Books are very useful for traveling, it doesnt take much space, or it doesnt weigh much. Some EBooks also have backlight to booster them when there isnt much light. EBooks are also efficient like their battery can lasts for more than than 10 days. EBooks also allow the readers to format the fonts and size of it of the text. The second kind of book is the Traditional Books. Traditional books are available in libraries and bookstores, most of the time you can even read there because they are very quiet.Readers pick up books and are abl e to visualize how close they are to conquering those books, and how far they have come in doing so. Even subsequently you have finished reading the book you can get profit out of it by selling it. You also dont have to load down around an electronic device that you might get damaged with watch as to traditional books they pages only get wrinkled. A book seems so delusive compared to an EBook, however it has its own advantages. A book that is on a shelf would last longer than an EBook, for an e-readers battery leave alone eventually run out, and the books that were salvage in your device may get lost. A reputation book is not as fragile as an e-reader, if you drop an e-reader it may get more severely damaged than a paper book. A paper books cover attracts customers with visual appeal, and the feeling of the paper itself and flipping the page is something that only paper books have. The designs of paper books tend to make them look beautiful too.Paper books remain readable for many years, but e-books will keep develop as engineering science develops so you have to frequently replace it. Some paper books also have more value than e-books,especially historical books. Despised all the differences, there are similarities between paper books and e-books. One similarity is that both paper books and e-books purpose is to give knowledge and entertain readers. Another similarity is that both books have variety of books that you could choose and read.They also transmit the authors message to the readers. You will never get tired of reading. Paper books and e-books/e-readers are both dear and they are useful in different times. You dont have to worry about weight or space when you are traveling with e-readers, but the paper books give you physical appeal. So maybe e-books are better for travelers and paper books for collectors. People usually store paper books, instead of e-books in archives. Books were and will always be part of our daily life.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

“No damn cat, and no damn cradle”: Truth and Meaning in Cat’s Cradle Essay

In Kurt Vonneguts apocalyptic novel, throw aparts Cradle, the end of the terra firma has been satisfyingized. Plant life crunches underfoot, as though it has underg unriv aloneed a stocky freeze. The tropical seas surrounding the fictional island of San Lorenzo have solidified, assuming a dull, frosted appearance. Grand waterfalls flowing from the majestic peak of Mount McCabe become lifeless. The once-scenic island horizon is transform into a pale, sickly yellow. The introduction of ice-nine into the environment leads to radical weather patterns and global chaos. Ice-nine is a crystal form of water, much like standard ice, but with a melting point of 114.4 degrees Fahrenheit. When the compound sop ups contact with water, the liquid instantly freezes solid, turning a frosted blue. The novel begins with a brief but telling forgo Live by the foma* that make you brave and kind and happy and healthy (Vonnegut VII). Foma are defined as harmless untruths (Vonnegut VII). While this b risk preface whitethorn merely seem to be a comical play on the standard disclaimer found within most fictional novels and therefore take little significance, it sheds considerable light on the murky relationships between truth and meaning, as well as science and religion. Each train of thought has its feature way of understanding and explaining the jumbled universe humans inhabit, and each claims to possess a high degree of truth. It is in this vivid and terrifying landscape that Vonnegut conveys to the lecturer through humor and symbolism that pursuing truth, whether through religion, science, or other pathways, is not an inherently positive or beneficial and does not aid one in the search for meaning in life.For hundreds of years, science and religion have been at odds. From the execution of the Greek philosopher Socrates to the Renaissance in Europe to modern times, the devil opposing forces have always had an abrasive relationship. The beginning of the Enlightenment movemen t in Europe in the early 17th century marked a turn toward science, k forthwithledge, and reasoning. It is from this era that modern society derives the notion that truth, a colossal with the quest for it, is intrinsically constructive for humanity, along with the belief that lies are detrimental to the cause. In Cats Cradle, this is shown not to be the case. At the General chew over and Foundry, scientists and researchers work tirelessly to increase knowledge, towork toward no end but that (Vonnegut 41). It is here that Felix Hoenikker, the beget of the atom bomb and of ice-nine and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize (a prime example of Vonneguts trademark humor), spends the final twenty-eight years of his life toiling away in the confines of his lab. Felix is a very childlike character, incapable of caring for himself and struggling with interpersonal interactions. Following the death of his wife Emily while in drive with Newt, his daughter Angela assumes the maternal position of the disjointed household due to Felixs childlike nature. She forgoes any social interaction with peers in order to hold the family together. plain-spoken Hoenikker, the middle child, follows suit, becoming an antisocial figure in the book. He becomes known as secret agent X-9 on account of his perpetual vexation-like demeanor. Felix neglects his parental duties, opting preferably to spend time on research and scientific pursuits. John Tomedi views the scientist symbolically Hoenikker serves as a symbol of scientific irresponsibility, a man so cloistered from humanity and so focused on childish play with nature that he has no perspective on the effects of his creations and a total spiritlessness for theirs uses (Tomedi 41).As a direct result of Felixs actions, his children suffer from the lack of true parental figures. The Hoenikker children can be considered casualties of science and truth. It is at the General Forge and Foundry that two major scientific advancements are made th e nuclear bomb and ice-nine. While both represent cutting-edge scientific knowledge, the culmination of absolute hours of research and development, neither invention represents the progression of humanity. As Vonnegut himself says, Its a law of life that if you turn up something that can be used violently, it depart be used violently (Allen 97). The atom bomb leads to the death of tens of thousands in the events at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, while ice-nine leads to the destruction of the entire world. The destructive nature of ice-nine and the atom bomb, inventions that were fostered by science, is in direct contradiction to the concept that science and knowledge benefit humankind due purely to their foundation in truth.Following the ice-nine catastrophe, John, the narrator and protagonist, arises himself in an underground fallout shelter with another resident of the island. John offers to share with her One of the secrets of life man was along time understanding Animals perch in w hat animals suspire out, and vice versa (Vonnegut 268). One with basic knowledge of science would immediately notice an error in the writing. The text should read something to the effect of animals breathe in what plants breathe out. This inconsequential error proves Vonneguts point the truth is irrelevant. The misinformation changes nothing. This factoid proves useless, not due to its false nature, but rather to its real world application, or lack thereof. One Another parallel experience occurs at the bar in the town of Ilium. While John is enjoying a drink, he poses a doubtfulness What is the secret of life? I asked. I forget, give tongue to Sandra. Protein, the bartender declared. They found out something about protein (Vonnegut 25). Again, this piece of information has little relevance in the real world. It is not deprivation to improve humanity or save ones life. It is merely a fact to satisfy ones curiosity. Vonnegut as well uses humor to prove his point How can anybody i n his right mind be against science? asked Crosby. Id be dead right now if it wasnt for penicillin, said Hazel. And so would my mother. How old is your mother? I inquired. A hundred and six. Isnt that wonderful? (Vonnegut 234). The use of the word wonderful is questionable. A long life does not equate to a quality one. Science, being founded on truth and knowledge, does not benefit humanity. On the tropical island of San Lorenzo, the denizens of the country would be go about with the depressing truth if it were not for the deliberate lies of Bokononism. In 1922, two friends, Lionel Boyd Johnson and Earl McCabe, shipwreck on the island shortly after setting sail.The state of the nation is so poor, no one attempts to prevent the foreigners from taking power. Initially, the duo resorts to a form of communism. They amass the entire wealth of the nation and divide it equally among its many residents. Each island-dwellers share amounts to approximately six dollars. Realizing the futility of their efforts to advance the island economically, they turn to another solution religion. Johnson devises his own religion, which becomes known as Bokononism. To add some zest to the monotonous life on the island, the partners develop roles to fulfill in a sort of play. Johnson becomes known as Bokonon, while McCabe becomes a violent dictator whose sole billing is to capture and kill Bokonon. This drama contributes greatly to the popularity of the religion, thus benefitting the island population. The islanders are subject to substandardliving conditions poverty, pestilence, and famine are prevalent. The island lacks the necessary resources to develop. They face a sensitive and hopeless future. Rather than facing the reality of day-to-day life, they adopt the fabricated religion of Bokononism when it became evident that no government or economic reform was going to make the people much less miserable, the religion became the one real instrument of hope. Truth was the enemy of the people, because the truth was so terrible, so Bokonon made it his business to provide the people with better and better lies. (Vonnegut 172)Following a similar form to the beginning of the actual novel, the Books of Bokonon, the religions equivalence to the Bible, warns the reader wear downt be a fool Close this book at once It is nothing but foma (Vonnegut 265). This line establishes the illegitimate nature of the Books of Bokonon, and, subsequently, the religion of Bokononism in its entirety. The lack of truth is beneficial because When people believe that they have the Truth, they seek to impose their beliefs on others, and religious wars are the inevitable result. The highest truth in Bokonons religion is that all spiritual truths are actually useful fictions, creations of the imagination that do not exist outside of the human mind. The meaning of life is not something we can discover in the outside world. We must create it for ourselves (Marvin 89). The religion is openly founded on falsehoods. In spite of this, the residents of San Lorenzo experience a real, tangible benefit. The plain reality of life on the barren island is too much to bear therefore, Bokonon feeds the residents compounding lies. Bokononism proves more beneficial to the residents of San Lorenzo than the alternative science. Though at its foundation Bokononism is serial of untruths, that fact does not limit the religion in its ability to aid those in need.Vonnegut portrays all religions as unreliable texts despite claims to the contrary. The islands dictatorial president, protoactinium Monzano, is dying a miserable death from cancer. As his death nears, pop undergoes his last rites with the aid of a Christian minister, who was ready to take care of Papas spiritual needs as they arose. He had a brass dinner bell and a hatbox with holes drilled in it, and a Bible, and a despatch knife- all laid out on the bench beside him. He told me there was a live chicken in the hatbox. The ch icken was quiet, he said, because he had provide ittranquilizers He turned out to be an intelligent man. His doctorate, which he invited me to examine, was awarded by the Western Hemisphere University of the Bible of Little Rock, Arkansas He had said that he had had to feel his way along with Christianity, since Catholicism and Protestantism had been outlawed along with Bokononism. So, if I am to be a Christian under those conditions, I have to make up a lot of new stuff. (Vonnegut 214) Much like Bokonon, the Christian minister fabricates new aspects of the religion to suit his needs. Daniel Minguez offers a thorough inspection This examen implies that one may rely upon an iteration of Christianity with the same confidence of its truth as one may rely upon their own guesswork at the whole works of the universe It shows that Christianity is just as effective without the accepted dogma of the Catholic or Protestant church and renders the text as inconsequential to the enactment of Christianity itself (Minguez 9) The Christian minister offers a distorted and absurd version of the religion. He makes additions to the religion with little regard for its supposed sanctity despite having been well educated. By doing so, he strips Christianity, in addition to all religion, of its credibility.Religion and science are used as vehicles to pursue a deeper question regarding humanity what is the purpose of life? The world inhabited by humans is mysterious, unpredictable, and ultimately meaningless. The characters in Cats Cradle are in search of purpose and meaning. In an attempt to find such, they supplement religion and science for true understanding. Bokononism and science strive to create meaning and purpose for the lives their followers. Bokononists believe that humanity is organized into teams, teams that do paragons Will without ever discovering what they are doing. Such a team is called a karass (Vonnegut 2). This is the stated purpose of Bokononism to carry out theologys will. Though Bokononism does not explicitly condemn the attempt to understand God, it merely states that such investigations are bound to be incomplete (Vonnegut 4). One cannot understand or comprehend God I once knew an Episcopalian lady in Newport, Rhode Island, who asked me to design and build a doghouse for her Great Dane. The lady claimed to understand God and His Ways of workings perfectly. She could not understand why anyone should be puzzled about what had been or about what was going to be. And yet, when I showed her a blueprint of the doghouse I proposed to build, she said to me,Im sorry, but I neer could read one of those things. Give it to your husband or your minister to pass it on to God, I said, and, when God finds a minute, Im sure hell explain this doghouse of mine in a way that even you could understand. She fired me. I shall never forget her. She believed that God liked people in sailboats much better than He liked people in motorboats. She could not bear to look at a worm. When she saw a worm, she screamed. She was a fool, and so am I, and so is anyone who thinks he sees what God is Doing. (Vonnegut 4) This does little to satisfy mans natural trust to know and understand his environment because any invented sense-making constitution is continually disproved by mans immediate experience of the world, and the arbitrariness of events perpetually defeats any system of alleged causalities (Bloom 91). Man must learn to accept such a situation tiger got to hunt,Bird got to flyMan got to sit and wonder, Why, why, why?Tiger got to sleep,Bird got to landMan got to tell himself he understand. (Vonnegut 182)In mans attempt to create meaning, he may weave fiction to appease his desire for purpose, though such systems are deemed invalid. It is mans responsibility to forge purpose and meaning for ones existence. Vonneguts writings in Cats Cradle show that truth is not innately positive, and that lies are the opposite. Science, sharing an i ntimate relation to truth and knowledge, is the source of significant degeneration and damage to humanity in the form of the nuclear bomb and ice-nine. The atom bomb produces suffering, death, and environmental damage on an unprecedented scale, while ice-nine utterly annihilates all life on the planet. On the other hand, the fabricated religion of Bokononism, while founded on falsehoods, brings hope to the otherwise hopeless. It creates a veil to mask the otherwise necessary reality of life on the barren island of San Lorenzo. Bokononism and science are used by their followers to create meaning and purpose in their lives. This leads to the final endpoint that it is ultimately up to man to create meaning for an otherwise meaningless existence.Works CitedAllen, William R., ed. Conversations with Kurt Vonnegut. Jackson University of Mississippi, 2001. Print. Bloom, Harold, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations Kurt Vonneguts Cats Cradle. Broomall Haights pamper Communications, 2002. Print. Marvin, Thomas F. Kurt Vonnegut A Critical Companion. Westport Greenwood, 2002. Print. Minguez, Daniel. Cats Cradle The Apocalypse of Human Thought. OxyScholar. Occidental College, 1 Apr. 2009. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. Tomedi, John. Great Writers Kurt Vonnegut. Philadelphia Chelsea House, 2004. Print.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Marketing Introduction and Limatations Essay

IntroductionIn my assignment I will be writing about Two vainglorious air agency, mark and Spencers, and British Heart foundation where I will explain about the different marketing techniques and strategies they use to undertake to promote their products and services. How they trademark their company and about relationship marketing. tag& Spencers label and Spencer are a big franchise employing up to 78,000 employees worldwide but mostly in the UK. Marks and Spencers are one of UKs leading retailers with annual sales of 8 billion. They operate more than 450 stores in 30 countries, and serve tens of millions of customers each week. Marks and Spencers are only as strong as the communities in which they trade. They aim to please their customers and market in an easy and understandable manner. Marks and Spencers promote over thousands of products, from food to c servinghing, each product marketed in a different fashion. Marks and Spencers have used many strategies to brook the rece ssion. Them being Growth, Branding, Survival and Relationship marketing.Survival StrategiesThey started by cutting jobs and closing stores. In January 2009 Marks & Spencers were planning to close 25 small patently food stores one being Croydon Valley retail store. They cut 780 jobs and 450 head office jobs. Sales plummeted in the 13 weeks leading up to December 27 2008, they fell by 7.1 %.Total sales fell 3.4 % in the UK. Other strategies they used to regain money were Pension cuts, Even though Marks and Spencers boilers suit sales fell by 1.2% there was an international sales increase and online retail increase. The retailer made pension cuts to save the company 175m 200million per annum. Chairman of Marks and Spencers Vandavelde (2009) gave a key speech on the recovery plan. The previous plan was like feeding a tree that was already over bugger offn and unhealthy. What it really needed was serious pruning back. It had unproductive limbs that were hampering its growth and a lot of its best characteristics were lost in the foliage.This is regarding the cuts that were being made. A strategy used by M&S is SWOT. SWOT is a order for analysing a craft, its resources, and its environment. Marks and Spencers used the SWOT method for their food products. SWOT helped them discover What the business does better than the competition. What rivalrys do better than the business? Whether the business is making the most of the opportunities available. How a business should respond to changes in its external environment. By using this method and braking down each sector they were able to research if there products would mete out, and their competitors such as big organisations like Tesco would affect their up sales. Another strategy which Marks and Spencers use is know all the Boston Matrix.The main value for them using this is because its a useful tool for analysing product portfolio decisions. Constraints on survival strategies are the financial situation, resources and material. Cash flow is a mutual coyness to the sales systems. The financial constraint is usually internal. A resource constraint is also an internal limitation. Machinery, power and skills are some resources with constraints. Moving too slowly to get products to where they need to be is a internal constraint. Material is also a constrain due to where we are buying it from, are we paying for quality and receiving a product of quality or are we not spending equal to make sure our products are efficiently made? This is a external constraint.Relationship MarketingRelationship marketing has continued to evolve and move forrader as technology contributes more communication channels. This includes tools for managing relationships with customers which goes beyond simple customer services. They identify six markets which are fall ined to relationship marketing. They are internal markets, provider markets, recruitment markets, referral markets, influence markets, and customer mark ets. Relationship marketing is designed to develop strong connections with customers by providing them with information directly suited to their needs and interests and by promoting open communication. This approach is there for results in increased word of mouth activity. Marks and Spencer have created customer loyalty by launching different campaigns promoting different products which connect with each customer. Theyve launched fashion campaigns, food campaigns and an online clothes shop.Marks and Spencers have now become partners with Tesco for Fair Trade campaigns they now have a incline of electrical appliances on sale to comply with what their customers fate. Marks and Spencers customers want to be able to rely on them to succeed and meet their needs as individual customers rather than a group. While Marks and Spencers have created a relationship with their buyers and are constantly researching too find out what their customers want more or less of, there are also constraint s and limitations with doing so.A market constraint is external. Marks and Spencers competitors are always ever-changing strategies and competing in sassy and better ways to try and come out on top. A question which is asked within big businesses such as M&S is, is the market demand for our products decreasing? This is an external constraint, if theres no longer a demand for the product then their profit margin decreases. A decrease in sales = decreased profit. Benchmarking is a strategy that is used by M&S for marketing this involves looking outside the box to realize how other organisations are achieving their performance levels and to understand the processes they are using to be successful. In this way benchmarking helps explain the processes behind excellent performances.Although this strategy helps M&S stay ahead it can also bring them down as changing your outlook and ideas can be a constraint, Managing change is a common constraint. Markets are dynamic and always changing. Organisations work to stay ahead of markets and their leading competitiors. Knowledge could be an internal constraint to success, this could become critical if survival is at stake.Growth StrategiesMarks and Spencer uses the Mckinsey Growth Matrix, to expand and grow their business. Instead of trying to find out how other business have grown, the Matrix strategy argues to grow on your own strengths. They have developed there growth strategies ground on Operational skills, Privileged assets, Growth skills and Special relationships.By growing meanspiritedd on these strategies M&S have been able to keep their customer loyalty but also have been able to increase their products and launch new promotions to engage new customers, by using different approaches they have a better change to widen their customer satisfaction. Some of these products can be interchange to existing customers who may trust the business (and its brands) to deliver but new customers may need more persuasion. Ev en though M&S base their growth on their on development they do analyze their competitors. They use recorded dare, opportunistic date and observable date. * Recorded data examples include competitor annual reports and product brochures. * Observable data good example is competitor pricing.* Opportunistic data to get hold of this kind of data requires a lot of planning and organisation. Marks and Spencers have grown as a company by producing a wide range of products, by up merchandising and engaging in customer loyalty. Strategies that have been used are the foundation of growing. They have focused their marketing and sales on a specific bespeak market this has improved effectiveness and speed the learning process. Unfortunately a common constraint could be an unresponsive market. Marks and Spencers campaigns have reeled in more customers but buyer Motivation is a must in all businesses, companies can often fail to provide incentives to motivate their buyers to purchase. A constrain t which can be avoided is the follow up after sale. Once a product has been bought research should be conducted to find feedback on that product and if theirs a demote of growth from that product.BrandingThe brand of a product is very important when making your decision weather to buy something. People buy branded name due to loyalty. Either they no the quality is good or the product is always going to taste good. For example going to Tesco and having the choice to buy, 23p Tesco value beans or 63p Heinz beans. Just because its not a named brand doesnt mean the quality isnt as good, theres just no risk. imprecate is the most critical component in building and maintaining a strong, emotionally driven brand. Strategies used to introduce their brand to the public is media. By promoting their brands its then known by existing and new customers. Many businesses such as M*&S use celebrities in their campaigns this is to engage the buyers and also make them aware that a celebrity likes the brand.LimitationsLegal constraintsMarks and Spencer may be constrained by a variety of licensure and other regulatory requirements, based on the industry and activities the business wants to pursue. For example M&S sell alcohol so they will need to have a alcohol license before they are permitted to sell any alcohol. Sales of goods act 1979,This act requires trader to sell goods that are described and are satisfactory. Marks and Spencers sell products to members there for the information state should be accurate and not misleading. For example selling food which states that theres only 130 calories in it but really there 600. This is illegal. wilful ConstraintThis is where a company voluntary state that they wont do something, or they always will. For example Marks and Spencers have get together forces with Tesco to sell Fair trade products, and they are also recycling old clothes to Oxfam. These things do not have to be done but notwithstanding they do they do them anyway t o give them a better reputation with the public.PressurePressure groups can be extremely effective in changing organisational behaviour.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Netflix’s business model Essay

Analysis partQuestion 1In its competition with Netflix, where did Blockbuster go wrong? How was the use of client data a key differentiator? How might Blockbuster have better positi unrivalledd itself against Netflix?Answer3 things that Blockbuster goes wrong are1. Slow & hapless ResponseNo Late Fees program was misleadingTotal Access program was not well integrated customers had to maintain separate accounts for the Web-based system and the store.2. morphological IssuesStores were franchise-based and Web site was maintained by corporate Capex requirements for starting a separate Web-based logistics system to deliver DVDs by mail3. neediness of Information SystemsLack of knowledge about its customers preferences and behaviors Lack of an appropriate CRM systemQuestion 2What are the core competencies of Netflixs current trading model (primary DVD-by-mail with an online component)? Assess the quantify of Netflixs business as described in the caseAnswerCore competencies of Netflixs current business model1. Flexibility Subscription model no late fees Customers could rent and watch movies on their own schedules2. Selection and Logistics No visible stores Allowed deep selection in a wide variety of genres3. restroom Mail delivery obviated the need to drive to bricks-and-mortar stores Queuing system on Web site allowed customers to have a constant flow of movies4. Customer Insight Cinematch cooperative filtering algorithms aided the discovery process better customer experience Recommendation system and analytics allowed deeper understanding of customer trends, which let Netflix adapt better and more chop-chopQuestion 3What effects will the rise of the VOD market likely have on Netflixs business model? How does VOD threaten Netflixs business? What opportunities does it present?For opportunities, Netflix has ability to license its platform, be the benchmark in movie streaming and higher impact of Netflixs existing CRM system. Therefore, Netflix has to shift organizational nidus from logistic efficiency to technology excellence and need to invest in owning a platform to nominate the service In terms of threats, the current physical distribution channel will become a liability and competitors like Apple, which has the know-how to sell online and holds a huge customer database and brand equity, will become a threat. Then, Netflix need to shift investment from logistics to technology, continue to build the Netflix brand as an instant provider of movies from studios to customers homes and to invest in customer loyalty and CRM solutionsQuestion 4Which of Netflixs current competencies can it best leverage as a competitive advantage in VOD? Which might be liabilities (refer to the comparing value drivers in the Video Rental Market) Netflix has three core competencies to succeed in VOD market which are wide selection, brand equity and customer relationships and recommendation tool and customer knowledge. However, there are weaknesses for Net flix in moving toward VOD market, the warehouse and facilities and employee overhead will threaten Netflix in term of cost since Netflix will rely heavily on technology.Question 5What kind of partnerships should Netflix prioritize partnerships with discipline providers or with hardware/device manufacturers? Partnership Prioritization Parallel TrackingNetflix should not limit itself goal is to be a service provider, not a content producer or a hardware manufacturer. Dont compete in areas where Netflix is at psyche of parity compete where Netflix has advantages. Roll up Roku effort under umbrella of device partnerships devote resources across all initiatives evenly. Becoming the service provider and content recommender on all cable platforms is a top priority. Assume that movie studios and other content producers will want to distribute via Netflix it is in their best interest. 1) competitor between Netflix and Blockbuster(where Blockbuster goes wrong)The case revealed that in gene ral without doubt Netflix was much more stronger than Blockbuster. Netflix could carry a much larger quantity and mutation across genders and at the same time Blockbuster was constrained by physical limitations imposed by its bricks-and-mortar stores, generally limited its selection to mainstream titles. Furthermore, Blockbuster do very big inconvenience for the customers who wanted to keep the movies longer time (because it limited rentals from one to five days). Moreover, customers had to pay additional amount of money (a fee) if they returned a video late. Blockbusters pricing model meant the customers had to pay each time they rented a video, while Netflix charged a flat subscription and were allowed to rent one to five DVDs at one time with no limit on how many could be rented in a month or no collect date.Therefore, Netflixs pricing schemes gave customers a greater flexibility comparing with Blockbusters pricing which was not so attractive for current customers. Also, Block buster could not offer for its customers one of the main things in business world the flexibility , because it was constrained by inventory at its stores, but Netflix was strong enough to provide flexibility for customers. The problem was that main focus of a business model was based not on inventory warehouses what had negative effects for customers limiting them on keeping movies as long as they wanted to have them. However, no late fee program , the one Blockbuster was using, later, was also not so successful for the company as it was expected. And finally, the latest one,

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Personal development Plan Essay

A Personal Development Plan is a useful tool to ensure your skills are up to date. It as well as gives you the opportunity to identify areas which you find difficult to carry out and which need improving.Please deliver a moment and reflect on how your training and on mull experience have developed since joining the company.What training and development activities (including work experience) have you done? What did you learn?Training, development activitiesLearning outcomesTraining forPeristeen intestine have it offmentTraining for-diabetic /insulin managementTraining for-Tracestronomy /nebulizerTraining for-Oxigen saturation/Suction machineUpdate trainingTo use a several kind of equipments-cough associate-splints-oxigen sat. Monitor-suction machine-nebulizer-tilt tablesearch to web for the following subjectsAbuse-Safeguarding AdultsDiseases-Brain injury,Celebral Palsy,infections(MRSA,HiV,TBC,Hepatitis) Codes of Practice for SocialCareWorkersDataProtectionPerson-centered CareMur der of Michael GilbertService users rightsPa testimonials-It has need a drawn-out experience with this ,itself the training not enough without experience,That is the best If the knob able to instructions me what need to do ,and how.-big responsibility to take a deal and to manage a diabetic lymph gland .not just about the insulin ,but about everything,because this disease does bad effects on every way of the client life/health(how seduce and often to check ,daily more times their sugar limit)It was the most complicated fellowship for me ,because so much depend on the clients personally needs .And on that point are to carry out just some minutes my duty if the client is in emergency situation.-It was so useful to repeat my previous knowledge to fresh up what I havelearned before,first of all the handling and moving part of the the training what I have enjoyedetc ,how I can to light upon somebody if I can not rolling them.-very helpful to keep a health/strong breathing ability ,this is an exercise to the breathing muscles of client-this keeps in correct position the client arms and legs-keep in focus the oxigen limit of client and this does and alarm if this is low,so then the Pa has time to act with this.-keeps pardon the clients airway. This will helps to breathe deeply and cleans the airways-a good and safe and alike a comfortable equipment to stand up and take balance,stimulaing the musc les.What part of your job are you really good at? What gives you greatest pleasure?I have been in more countries and I have worked there as a carer with very different type of clients in different languages ,different lifestyleso in this way I accept everyone liberal way Im flexible and I learn quickly in new situations. I can help in their life my clients to keep them independent as possible,because the smallish things can takes a lot day to day.I could make it easier to manage their lifestyle and to provide them confident feelings,because they can controll their life.Feedback (to complete by assessor)What parts of your job do you find difficult? What parts of your job do you want to improve?If somebody is disabled then they have a hard situation in their life ,because their life more complicated like to others. So this situation can lead stressful and impatient personality ,It is not always easy to tolerate.This has been more times when the client was angry,nervious,impatient ..etc or just They had a bad dayand a part of the clients has a propensity to deduce it on the Pa.-try to be more accepting and patience-develop the English language and acquire more knowledge in my workFeedback (to complete by assessor)Why did you find out to complete your Diploma? What goals have you set yourself which can be achieved by the completion of the Diploma?I have 7-8 years experience as a carer but I had no any education about it ,so this is the high time after several years of experience to take some qualification. And also in this way I can improve in my job and I can provide a higher quality care for my client ,and probably I can take more knowledge in wider part of care job. Furthermore Some clients are also to prefer to take a Pa ,Who has a diploma.Please complete at the end of your QualificationHave you achieved the goals you have set yourself by completing your Diploma? Has it alter your practice and how?What is your next goal?

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Grapes of Wrath Journal Essay

Connection (Family)As the Joads ride on their journey to California, they excursion as a whole, oneness unit, one family. And on one night they ingroup off the side of the road, and run into the Wilsons, creating and merging into one large family, with one goal in mind, r each(prenominal)ing California. But as the days of locomotion continue, the family struggles to stay intact due to obstacles such as the staggering heat, lack of money, automobile breaking down, doubts brought upon by people who shake off been in California, and however death. But Steinbeck defines family as a unit with members who think of other members before themselves, and Ma expresses this idea clearly with Granmas death. The Joads have a connection where each member truly has someone to have their back when in need. Tom shares this with Casy and Al, Ma and Granma, Pa with Granpa and Uncle John, Ruthie and Winfield, Rose of Sharon and Connie, but then theres Noah who doesnt feel the same love which is on e of the reasons that persuades him to depart from the family. They also have a structure in which Tom, Pa, Al, normally make family decisions and the eventually the final verdict is break awayn to Ma. Overall, family is mull to take care of each other when in time of need and work as one rather than individuals.Adaptation (Positives and Negatives)With the family traveling together, its evident that migration is a change that is supported and has to be over bewilder. And although the outcome of migration is suppose to be glorious, the journey to achieved the so call promise reduce gives the family a brutal beating of struggle, hunger, and even death. Granpa and Granma died due to lack of health and high heat, but then again the conditions were somewhat the same in Sallisaw. Then there was also the death of the Joads dog. With migration, the Joads needed leaders and this is where characters such as Tom and Ma come into play as the heads of the family. Tom in a management leads th e men, especially Al, and Ma leads Granma, Rose of Sharon, and the kids. To conclude, adaptation or migration changed characters into leaders to lead the family to California but at great costs and struggle.CompassionCompassion is victorious pity or seeing those in need and taking action in any counselling possible to help them overcome their problems and obstacles. In Chapter 12, a ecumenic chapter, a story of a family of 12 who were forced off their land and had to carry their belongings in a trailer, waited on the side of the 66. They were eventually hauled by a man who took them to California and fed them. This act by the random stranger is compassionate because he sees the family in need of help and no way to get to California and offers to take them and even feeds them. Its one thing to feed 4 or 5 people but 12, it must come from the heart. With the Joads, they do the same with the Wilsons but the Joads are less compassionate because they use them for their car to ease the weight from their own car. Then theres also the part where a man enters a diner and begs for some cheap bread and the worker is pressured by the cook to be compassionate and give the man bread at a discount.Another example of being compassionate is when Tom comes back from his venture for a con rod with Al and Casy and meets up with the family at a campsite but are forced to leave. When Tom leaves, he walks by a women cooking and comments on how hed like some. The woman smiles and says when the foods ready, he can have some. Throughout the journey of the Joads we see that food is scarce yet this woman offers to share. And the final example is when the Joads fix to cross the desert leading to California and at the same time leaving the Wilsons behind. Pa leaves behind cooked food and money for them, knowing how nasty their desert journey will be. We see a sweeter side of Pa rather than the serious and quiet Pa that is usually portrayed. Overall, compassion is still most even with such devastation surrounding folks due to the dust bowl and overproduction ca apply foreclosures, the AAA telling farmers what they cant farm. legion(predicate) have muzzy their homes, land and past life, but some still have their heart.Symbols (Biblical Allusions)One thing that made be think of any biblical symbols or allusions that Steinbeck could have used was when the Joads formally entered California just after trial over a snake. The snake part gave it away due to it usually referring or having to do with the devil along with the desert part. When the Joads spent a night traveling over the feared desert, it made methink what they went through so far. They lost Granma, Granpa, their dog, and separated from Noah. They were traveling by force through the desert on a low budget, with little food, heat anxiety, and were crowded in their old wad motortruck. With the desert, what comes to mind is the desert that Jesus traveled through for forty days and forty nights, and as he traveled he was tempted numerous times by the devil. And one thing to keep in mind is that God forced Jesus to walk and pray in the desert. As Jesus was forced to travel in the desert so were the Joads by the officer. I see the temptations as the conditions that the Joads were traveling with, lack of food, heat, little money etc. Just like the temptations from the devil, and the conditions of the Joads, they were suppose stop them from continuing on with their journey and to give up. But instead just like Jesus did, the Joads overcame the desert and won against the devil and thats where the running over the snake comes in.Antagonists (People along the 66)Throughout the section, businessmen, state officials, land, and migrates who have been in California add on to the already challenging journey to California with their upright business, anti-farming seizes, mountains, discrimination, and doubts. In chapter 12, a get into store raise their prices because they know its an essential for family to keep going, and in this case, the salesman lies to the customer about the condition of a tire just to get an extra buck. Throughout the journey, the fear of high slopes and the desert scare the Joads and Wilson of stopping them from reaching the promise land. And along with the fear of nature not playing on their side, the Joads hear all the same stories of California not being what people thought it would be like. One man tells them that jobs are in a sense free labor or slave like work because so many are migrating to California big(p) an abundance of workers to employers, giving the the chance to give them whatever wages and they want. Theres also stories about not being able to farm or touch any fruit on trees, stories that its not worth going. The Joads meet a couple of families who were heading back home east, away from California. With these stories and testimonies, its hard for the Joads to have confidence and faith in their journey and destination.Characteri zation (Tom)In chapter 13, when Tom pulls alongside the road where a family is camping,, the Wilsons, he politely asks if they have permission to camp along with them, even though the strip of land wasnt under their ownership. With this action we see how kind hearted and friendly Tom is even though he killed a man. Another example depicting his traits is in chapter 16 when he proposes a plan that will split him and Casy from the rest, in order to fix their truck and have the others move along. His proposal and plan show his leadership skills. Another example is when he attacks the one eyed man for giving up on life due to losing his eye. Tom expresses his opinion that whatever defects or disadvantages a person has that they should make the best of it. Overall we see Tom as a generous, kind hearted, leader, that believes everyone has the opportunity to make something out of themselves.Quote a Passage (Unity)When this family meets another family on the highway, they share their storie s of loss For here I lost my land is changed We lost our land. (193). This quote is significant because it expresses the idea of unity that pushes the migrates to move as ahead as one. They share a common tragedy, the heartbreak of losing their land, home, or farm. A large part of the country is the same position, a dilemma, and the only solution is to head out west. And to do so, Steinbeck helps portray the families migrating as one by using we and our and if they want to achieve their prosperity, they must not only have the same issues but work together to solve those issues. In a way, the havok laid upon by the dust bowl, foreclosures, and overproduction cant be solve by one individual but by the aid, work, and cooperation of many.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Respose to “He-y, Come on Ou-t!” by Shinichi Hoshi Essay

What would a life be without self-restraint or moonlight, without the sound of the wind rushing through the trees, the smell of crisp autumn air, or without the touch of dewy grass brushing our feet? Our environment gives us a source of peace, happiness and relaxation. But what around a life filled with ringing carrel phones, angry bosses, tight deadlines and traffic jams? Living with these aggravations causes us stress, anger and chaos, but what atomic number 18 the benefits? Oh, but of course How could I forget or so money peck will go to any lengths for prosperity, even as far as destroying our precious environment. Shinichi Hoshi demonstrates this mania in his short story He-y, Come on Ou-t.Upon the discovery of the infinite hole, we are first introduced to mans willingness to sacrifice the Earths well-being. A concessionaire claims the hole with a profitable plot in mind and launches a vigorous campaign. Weve got a fabulously deep hole Scientists say its at least five tho usand meters deep Perfect for the disposal of such things as waste from nuclear reactors (154), he chanted. Since its not environmentally safe to dispose of nuclear waste above ground, it moldiness be perfectly harmless to put it in ground, right? Id hoped that the villagers would object to this mirthful arrangement, and they did. They balked at the idea until it was explained that there would be absolutely no above-ground contamination for several thousand historic period and that they would share in the profits.Into the bargain, a magnificent road was built from the city to the village (154). I am sadly disappointed in you, villagers. You are all in the mindset of Oh, it wont sham us for awhile, plus were getting money and a new road What could be defame with that? Has it not occurred to you that even though you are benefiting from this proposal, that it might be causing harm elsewhere, in stark areas such as the environment? Of course not As human beings we dislike thinking about the eventual consequences (155) and are extremely ambitious, therefore being much too preoccupied with our thoughts of success and growth.Our baseball club has become so preoccupied with visions of wealth and expansion that weve failed to notice the state of our weakening environment. We are concentrating just on producing one thing after another (155), no matterthe price the Earth is coerce to pay. I have a hard time to believe that such an intelligent species could be so horribly ignorant about such a matter. Although some are aware of the way we are wrecking havoc against our planet, so little being done to protect our earth. We all need to translate that all of our selfish and inconsiderate deeds that we are pressing upon our planet will be affirm to haunt us. We are sitting in the drivers seat, chattering away on our cell phones, too engrossed to spot the danger. In the blink of an eye we see the impending collision, but its too late. We are all so absorbed with doll ar signs that we cant appreciate catch Earths true value. The man, however, was gazing in idle reverie at the citys apparent horizon growing ever more beautiful, and he failed to notice (155).

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Cultural Diversity Presentation Essay

This bearation that I pull up stakes be displaying is to demonstrate the cultivates, p arnts and teachers the importance of English delivery learners and to encourage all parents to get involved and be subdivision of the develop culture telephone numerateivities. The involvement is important in assistanceing students in the schools. Also these courses and affiliations to include families, parents are to grade the support and raise the level of their break shineicipation, whereas students procession their accomplishment, way of thinking, and manners.Seeing as parent taking part is so significant, the presentation symbolizes a way to aid parents and to become to a greater extent(prenominal) effective member in their childrens schooling, as well as maintaining their educational accomplishment, and support them to take the most thorough educational programs offered by their schools they go to. The three activities in which I will be displaying is based on the depression th at actual paternal club schooling must present families useful counsel to brace their befools learning.Throughout these presentations, families will discover the choices and openings obtainable to students from all social factors and ethnical groups and realistic approaches to deviate and encourage their pull the leg ofs as they take on the challenging school classes in elementary, middle or open senior high school school. Goals The major aims of the parents participation and training are to 1. Improve teachers understanding of thinkers to unwrap intersect cultural inter put to death with families 2. Improve familys understanding on the advantages of parental participation in their kids education.3. Present family with data nearly cultural diversity and the springy importance of their kids involvement in such program as this 4. Make available to families certain ideas to assist their kids to sign up in cultural programs. Diversity and Cultural Contact Communication Discove ring and understanding more or so each other and our students as associates of an exclusive cultural and verbal population is an essential idea of raising the value of interaction among educators, classmates, parents, and schools.Families who are not customary with the United States instructive academic process are confronted with extra disputes in their unique(predicate) school participation. For example, families who were raised in different nations might act in a way steady with the means they were proposed to get in the lands where they were raised. In various nations/ethnicity, families are not the likes ofly to participate in the school learning activities other than assist with research and go to irregular celebrations.The American school method believes that families will take some accountability for their kids achievement in proper learning by go overting energetically drawn in with the school and assisting their kids. The probability is that families will be occupied n ot only with the obligation of homework but besides with particular assignments and other linked interest. In several nations the task of the families and the task of the school are raspingly outline and separated. Close relative see an important obligation to implant manner and correct conduct in their kids. It is the schools task to implant educational understanding.Teachers may be alleged as possessing not only the accountability but also including the obligation to guess all instructive choices about their learners. In adding together, numerous linguistically and settler families are not alert of their human rights and the different fly the coop that they can brook in their own school structures. Once the parents of migrant youths have no learning of the learning procedure, they might sense that they are leaving behind their kids to the big, unfamiliar planet that their kids now fit in to, other than families do not. They might turn out to be puzzled, alarmed, and irrita ted.These arguments can generate a meaning of anguish and stress. trails can assist parents in the course of shifting into the United States typical ethnicity by making them sense that they are wanted and worthy. While parents comprehend how they can maintain their kids schooling and once schools discover the means to lecture to and integrate these parents cultural offerings, every person gains. operation 1 The participations of families Aim Activity one Recommend families with information about the encouraging influence of parental participation. Estimated time involves matchless hour and a halfSupplies Indicator Marker and White board payoff Number one When families get concerned in their kids schooling. Your best course of action Warm-up Activity number one (15 minutes) Previous to opening the activity make clear the specific grounds of this gathering. Then have every single goal relative present him or herself and verbalize for a moment about his or her point of views of the value of teaching in their kids lives. Carry a total Group Activity bump a (15 minute). For a micro time explaining the live stages of family participation and the way in which they can encouragingly influence their kids schooling.Group Activity number one (30 minutes) Include close relatives to play a role in the next task. Split the close relatives into little groups of four. Request the families to consider the way in which they can help their children to perform better in school. Persuade them to give examples of ideas they presently use to help their kids. Include the group to take a humanity official and a host. Include every single group to list their own individual ideas on the white board. Make certain that the families believe and feel happy with these functions.But if required, you or a school spokesperson may need to assist them to proofread and offer their strategies. Group Activity number devil (30 minutes) To track the action, asking families to go in return to their previous role and place their ideas in conditions of their usefulness. Which of these ideas has been mostly most victorious? Include the group to rephrase the ideas in class society. When this activity is finished, include dissimilar groups to split their ideas. It is essential to allow the families to present their own individual grades. There are no right or incorrect answers.If families talk in dissimilar languages, attempt to have families who converse the identical language in the matching group to permit them to talk in their natural language if they desire. Also adding on, it is vital to have translators to assist affiliates of the group converse with one another if various affiliates of the group are not English skilled. Activity 2 Make a Change in your Kids behavior Aim Activity two To give emphasis on the strength that parental might have in their kids educational lives when they get included. Estimated time involves One hour and a halfSupplies Indicator Marke r and White board Your best course of action Carry a Full Group Activity Give a (15 minute). To recite it out loud or you might have one of the close relatives read it to the group. Group Activity number one (30 minutes) Make it possible to serve a conversation between families. Offer and help to facilitate conversation on the inquiry like having you encountered similar related circumstances? What would you do or say? What was the response of your act? Write down familys answers on the white board. Group Activity number two (30 minutes) Split the group into little bunches.Request every single group to talk about the following inquiry (A) what pillow slip of commentary or means of the school should you require to turn into a good supporter for your kid? acquire the group write down their strategies on a single sheet of paper. Then share those thoughts with the self-colored group. Evaluating the answers to the inquiries (15 minutes) Closing the comments (15 minutes) The instru ctor will momentarily outline the ideas and the data presented to him or her from the groups and persuade the families to use the offerings and ideas to make certain that their assistance to their kids will be successful.Activity 3 Encouraging Your Kids School Accomplishment Aim Activity three The aim of Activity three is to offer families truthful aims and actions that will allow them to support their kids to start setting up for university at a young age. Estimated time involves One hour Supplies Indicator Marker and White board Your best course of action Carry a Full Group Activity Give a (30 minute). To explain the importance and demands of a university and the difficult activities they may encounter. How to gain college credits in the period time there are in high school.What type of classes will assist them to be successful at a university and finish a degree? What guidance counselor they should speak to about workshops, financial aid document for students. Educators need to a lso explain to the parents about the amount time and work that their kids have to do and how they are being graded. Introductory Activity Give a (30 minute). Welcoming an ex-former successful student to a meeting classroom to share his or her come along experiences in the university with present students which are also helpful.Expending families supportive and assistance is also very vital to students accomplishment. Together the parents and students ought to study about the significance of get ready for a university while in high school and the necessity of a college learning to accomplish a profitable career. Conclusion Educators need to present families with necessary educational material on hand to support functioning school meetings and high educational prospects. We need to increase parent participation and expectations that way they can really and openly influence the progress of a stressed student.These classes are offered to parents as an important offering tool which is a t their access. Educators need to total the information, instruction guidelines and at home tactics. Families also need to work with their kids at home at a suitable time. If mutually families and educators play their task in this affiliation, they can develop a beneficial human relationship where the child obtains the gains. This activity, which provides a cultural diverse program which can be utilized as a method of interaction between families and educator.The presentation provided as well the information and methods to families to allow them to become more concerned in their kids schooling. The presentation will determine the changes in families handling and appreciation of the activity establish on study and discussion. Reference Syrja,R. C. (2011). How to reach and teach English Language Learners applicative Strategies to ensure success. San Francisco,CA Jossey-Bass. Increasing Student Achievement by Increasing parent Involvement By Dr. Cynthia fusilier theater director o f Curriculum New Brighton area School District http//www. Graves, S. L. (2007). Influences on preservice teachers beliefs about family involvement and cultural diversity An exploration of mentoring relationships. (Order No. 3393768, The Pennsylvania State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 233-n/a. Retrieved from http//search. proquest. com/docview/304840371? accountid=32521. (304840371). Sturz, D. L. , & Kleiner, B. H. (2005). Effective management of cultural diversity in a classroom setting. Equal Opportunities International, 24(5), 57-64. Retrieved from http//search. proquest. com/docview/199537956? accountid=32521

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Acute Hepatitis B

Acute Hepatitis B GNUR543 St. John Fisher College Mr. Wilson is a 47 year old troops being evaluated for complaints of fatigue, anorexia and abdominal distention. On examination, it is tell that the skin is jaundiced and the colorful-colored-colored-colored enlarged. D. W. denies significant alcohol or drug use. He denies both known exposure to hepatitis and has never been vaccinated for hepatitis. He is taking no medication. Laboratory tests reveal the following and a diagnosis of corking hepatitis B is made 1. Review and break the testing groundoratory data. What diagnosis is supported by these appreciates? Give your rationale. Mr.Wilsons lab work is reviewed down the stairs * AST142 IU/L * AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme and blood sample results can detect if there is colored injury. AST is found in the center field and coloured with much lower levels in muscles and kidneys. In a healthy person the AST is between 10-40 IU/L. If the liver-colored is dam aged, AST is released into the blood stream (Hepatitis B, 2011). * ALT120 IU/L * ALT (Alanine aminotransferase), if lordly can also be an indication of liver damage. ALT is an enzyme that is normally in the liver and kidneys. If the individual is healthy, the ALT is low, between 7-56 IU/L. el ALT is an early index finger of liver damage usually elevating prior to a long-suffering becoming jaundice (Hepatitis B, 2011). * GGT 42 IU/L * GGT (Gamma-glutamyl transferase) is an enzyme that is found in the liver but may also be in the spleen, kidneys and pancreas. As with AST/ALT, GGT is magisterial when there is liver damage. The normal test range is 0 51 IU/L. GGT allow be elevated when there is acute damage to the liver (or bile ducts) (Hepatitis B, 2011). * Alk Phos 84 IU/L * Alk Phos (Alkaline Phosphatase or ALP) is an enzyme found in the liver, bone, kidney and GI tract. figure range for this blood test is 44 147 IU/L.Alk Phos, if elevated broadly indicates that there is a b lockage in the bile ducts. Also, if it is found to be high this means the forbearing can whatever have kidney ailment or bone indisposition. To differentiate, a GGT test is also taken. If that result is high as well, a liver ailment is present if the GGT is indoors normal limits accordingly the patient has bone disease (Hepatitis B, 2011). * Total Bilirubin1. 0 mg/dl * Total bilirubin is the product of damaged or miserable down red blood cells in the body. The bilirubin is processed through the liver and the normal levels in the body are 0. 3 1. 9 mg/dL.If this level is increased, it means that the liver is not touch the bilirubin delinquent to liver disease (Hepatitis, 2011). * Albumin4. 3 g/dl * Albumin (ALB) measures the level of white in the patients plasma. Albumin is a protein that is made in the liver and is sensitive to any changes in liver function. Albumin mainly ensures that the cells in the body dont leak, keep the tissues ply and transports vitamins, calci um, hormones through the body. The normal range for Albumin is 3. 4 5. 4 g/dL. Albumin lead be lower than normal in the case of malnutrition or liver disease (Hepatitis, 2011). HBsAgpositive * Anti-HBSnegative * Anti-HCVnegative * HIVnegative Test Name Mr. Wilsons Result Normal Ranges AST 142 IU/L 10-40 IU/L Elevated ALT 120 IU/L 7-56 IU/L Elevated GGT 42 IU/L 0 51 IU/L Normal Alk Phos 84 IU/L 44 147 IU/L Normal Total Bilirubin 1. 0 mg/dl 0. 3 1. 9 mg/dL Normal Albumin 4. 3 g/dl 3. 4 5. 4 g/dL Normal Mr. Wilsons labs indicate that he has continuing Hepatitis B. This is chronic because the indicators for acute liver damage are within normal limits. For example, if the patient were having an acute onset of Hepatitis B his Albumin would be low.Albumin is made in the liver and is very sensitive to any changes in the liver. If there was acute damage to the liver the Albumin value would not be in normal range. Also, Mr. Wilsons bilirubin would be higher if he was having acute h epatitis B. For the skin to be noticeably jaundiced the bilirubin level would usually be 2. 0 mg/dL (Hepatitis, 2011). The patients GGT would be elevated also if he was experiencing an acute episode of hepatitis B. Additional tests that might be helpful to making an accurate diagnosis would be IgG-anti-HBc and IgM-anti-HBc.These tests show if the hepatitis is acute or chronic. The IgG-anti-HBc is positive if the patient is chronically infected. The IgM-anti-HBc would show positive if the patient is acutely infected with hepatitis B. The HBs-Ag will be positive in both acute and chronic cases. See the table below for an overview of the assessment and tests that are generally minded(p) when a new-made Hepatitis B diagnosis is reached. (Lok A. S. , 2011) 2. Explain the hepatocellular changes that occur with the above diagnosis. The liver has galore(postnominal) roles in the body that associate it with umteen systems.For example, it acts as a digestive organ by secreting bile for th e sectionalization of fat (Copstead, 2010). The liver also removes bilirubin from the blood, temporarily stores blood and synthesizes the blood clotting factors (Copstead, 2010). Other functions of the liver are removing toxins from the blood, metabolizing both sex hormones and steroid hormones. Any damage to the liver can in charm disrupt any of these processes and functions that it performs. Some of the processes and functions can be changed in the following ways * liver firing off Inflammation in chronic hepatitis is associated with scarring.Severe inflammation can bridge together portal tracts within the liver, this is called bridging slough (Mani & Kleiner, 2009). It can also bridge to central veins, confluent necrosis (Mani & Kleiner, 2009). This leads to scarring, the creation of fibrous strands and in many cases will lead to fibrosis. Throughout the liver cells are becoming damaged therefore blocking and restrict the livers functionality. Hormone secretion, chemicals a nd toxins in the blood, clotting factors and other defense fighting macrophages are interrupted (Copstead, 2010).Along with the inflammation, the patient will feel fatigued and will have a lowered immunity. * Ascites and peripheral edema Abdominal distention, ascites, is a result of the damaged cells within the liver and much specifically the membrane of the cell has been damaged. There is an intra-abdominal buildup of sodium, wet and protein. The cells in the liver are unable to maintain the appropriate osmotic gradient across the pleura (Copstead, 2010). This free fluid is likely to accumulate in the dependant areas of a persons body, such as ankles, legs, and arms (Kukka, 2010). Jaundice Red blood cells have a short life span and as they die and/or are damaged the body will break them down and dispose of them. This is referred to as bilirubin metabolism and this happens in three phases pre, intra and posthepatic. (Copstead, 2010). The red blood cells should be broken down, de livered to the liver and then transported through the biliary system and thus be wasted via the kidneys or the colon. With damaged liver cells, the bilirubin is not excreted from the liver and there is a buildup of the conjugated bilirubin and the result is jaundice (Copstead, 2010).Other changes due to the liver damage are portal hypertension, gastric and esophageal varacies, vitamin mal-absorption, poor blood clotting and altered mental status (Copstead, 2010). The liver has such far reaching effect on so many organs and systems in the body that any damage to the liver will result in lessen functioning of other systems. Immediate tests to determine the cause and extend of the damage would be imperative to managing the disease going forward. 3. How should the disease be managed and monitored? Explain your rationale.If pharmacotherapeutics are used, explain your rationale and their mechanism of action. First steps would be to order additional labs including, IgM-anti-HBc, IgG-ant i-HBc, HBeAg, HBV DNA, CBC with PT and electrolytes. In cases of acute hepatitis B, symptoms sometimes go unnoticed. The computer virus will normally go away on its own and if sermon is given, it is for the symptoms and most adults recover to the full (Hepatitis B, 2011). But in the case of chronic HBV, the patient will need to be monitored to see if the virus is replicating (Lok A. S. , 2011). In patients with chronic HBV, the treatment oals are to reduce the long term effect of liver damage, close out the transmission of the virus to others and manage any complications along the way (Lok A. S. , 2011). A clear diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B is needed. Results of blood work will determine the course of treatment. In Mr. Wilsons case, with only the starting lab results, it appears that he is in the active chronic infection stage. At this point the liver damage is still minimal. Because there does not seem to be significant liver damage a liver biopsy would not be indicated at this point (Lok A. S. , 2011).As the practitioner, I would recommend more blood tests, as noted above, and ongoing monitoring of the virus every few months. This will help in determining the application of the virus. The medications used to treat chronic hepatitis B tend to have serious side effects. The patient mustiness be willing to make a commitment to continue the therapy and adhere to close monitoring during any drug treatments (Hepatitis B, 2011). Supportive medicines are crucial to assist in treating side effects of the virus. For example, diuretics are prescribe if edema is not resolving on its own.Vitamins and minerals are indicated if labs show deficiency due to decreased liver function. If it is determined that Mr. Wilsons virus is active (meaning he is able to infect others) there are new drugs available to choose from. Antiviral treatments include (Hepatitis, 2011) 1. Entecavir a. A lozenge taken once a twenty-four hour period for up to a year b. Used when DN A viral cells are actively replicating 2. Interferon Alpha c. shooting a few times per week for up to a year d. Used when patient has remunerated liver disease 3. Pegylated Interferon e. Injection once per week for up to a year f.Used when patient had make up liver disease and evidence of viral replication and liver inflammation 4. Lamivudine g. A anovulatory drug taken once a day for a year or more h. Used when patient has active liver inflammation and active viral replicating 5. Adefovir Dipivoxil i. A pill taken once a day for a year or more j. Used in patients with chronic HBV 6. Telbivudine k. A pill taken once a day for a year or more l. Used in patients with active viral replication, persistent elevations in ALT or AST or histologically active disease 7. Tenofovir m. A pill taken once a day for a year or more n. Used in patients with chronic HBVThe medicines listed above are used alone or more likely in conjunction with others. These are currently the only hepatitis B dru gs that are approved by the FDA (Lok & McMahon, 2009). gibe to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Practice Guidelines, the ultimate goal of therapy is to suppress the replication of the virus and put the liver disease into remission (Lok & McMahon, 2009). This is monitored by watching the patients ALT, AST and other liver, viral and blood tests. The viral tests are imperative to determine the proper adjustments in medications.For example, interferon has been shown to reduce the viral replication and inducing liver disease remission (Lok & McMahon, 2009). Also, a newer drug, tenovir has shown significant promise in reducing viral levels in patients as compared to adefovir (Lok & McMahon, 2009). Practitioners need to watch for resistance as well when using the anti-viral drugs. As noted, the drugs are used in combination as well and these have shown to be more effective than when they are used alone. The effects of combined usage are better antiviral eff ects and delayed resistance (Lok & McMahon, 2009).Mr. Wilsons ALT, HBeAg lab values and his HBV DNA will be a main determinate to the type of therapy he will receive. A liver biopsy will be indicated later on if hisHBsAg is positive for more than six months, his blood serum HBV DNA is greater than 20,000 IU/mL and he has persistent or intermittent elevations in his ALT/AST levels (Kukka, 2010). abstract Hepatitis B can be chronic or acute. When a person has acute hepatitis B they generally dont even notice and never need treatment. If treatment is needed it is supportive treatment for the symptoms of the acute virus infection.Chronic hepatitis B patients are at risk for cirrhosis and HCC (hepatic cellular carcinoma) (Kukka, 2010). Patients that have chronic HBV need to be educated on the risk of infecting others and will, in some cases, need to alter their modus vivendi to protect others from getting the virus. Treatment is dependent on the blood work up that is obtained. It is ve ry important that a patient that goes on antiviral treatment remain on it to reduce drug repelling strains. Also, patients must be evaluated and treated for the side effects of the anti-virals as well as the symptoms of other bear upon organs and systems in the body.References Copstead, L. -E. C. (2010). Pathophysiology. St. Louis Saunders. Hepatitis. (2011, July 6). Retrieved March 26, 2012, from Lab Tests Online http//labtestsonline. org Hepatitis B. (2011, July 6). Retrieved March 25, 2012, from Lab Tests Online http//labtestsonline. org Hepatitis B. (2011, September 1). Retrieved March 24, 2012, from Mayo Clinic http//www. mayoclinic. com/health Kukka, C. M. (2010). Hepatitis B Fact Sheet. HCSP Publications. Lexicomp. (2012). Retrieved February 5, 2012, from Lexicomp https//online-lexi. com Liver Blood Tests. (2012, March 28).Retrieved March 30, 2012, from e Medicine Health http//www. emedicinehealth. com/ Lok, A. S. (2011, February 16). Overview of the instruction of hepatit is B. Retrieved March 24, 2012, from UpToDate http//www. uptodate. com Lok, A. S. , & McMahon, B. J. (2009). Chronic Hepatitis B Update 2009. Alexandria American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Mani, H. , & Kleiner, D. E. (2009, May 1). Liver Biopsy Findings in Chronic Hepatitis B. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from University of Pennsylvania, Department of Medicine http//webdev. med. upenn. edu

Friday, May 17, 2019

Critique of Kochavi’s Article Essay

umteen of us used to read historical facts and data whether as a form of requirement of on the button a source of knowledge. As we read these texts, we are mould to understand current subdivisions of fib that crumples us greater post and learning of the past. According to Howell and Pervenier in their book From Reliable Source An existence to Historical Methods, there is a process in perplexing historical data and evidences. This book serves as the underlying steps in understanding the meaning and essence of history.As readers, we may be brought into historical places and scenarios because of legion(predicate) historians that give us several accounts on history, but we must excessively understand how history vie a noteworthy role to our growth and identity. This paper will discuss Noam Kochavis term entitle caps View of the Sino-Soviet Split, 1961-63 From Puzzled Prudence to impolite Experimentation as it unravels a significant point of world history.In discussing th e text, Howell and Prevenier will be taken into consideration to justify the arguments of the paper. Kochavis article discussed and described the trend and pattern of Sino-Soviet war. In the beginning of the article, the antecedent discussed the path of the fight as it involves the unify States. In the middle of the text, Kochavi analyzed the different perspectives of the other historians as they give narration to the process of war through time between the concerned countries and the United States as part of the issue.Howell and Prevenier discussed the five keys to successful nuance of historical accounts a historian should know how to choose, he or she must know how to authenticate, to decode, to compare, and to interpret those sources that he or she has obtained. Based on the article, Kochavi has overflowing materials right through her workforce. It was seen in her bibliography. They were used according to each topic. In the beginning of her article she discussed her main source, Gordon Changs Friends and Enemies. She discussed every sequence of Changs ideas and facts towards the World War and the perspectives of the United States within the issue of Sino-Soviet War. From all of these, it shows that Kochavi achieved the first key to obtain elaboration of the topic by choosing the topic and idea. Changs study has the single virtue of highlighting the considerable extent to which US officials during the fifties and 1960s, Republican and Democrat alike, identified China as a growing danger to global and regional stability (Kochavi 51). Kochavis article is a depiction of social reality and history into a interwoven situation. She is a product of modern historian that deals with the nature of facts and data in a sociological perspective rather than the technical acquisition of evidences. It can be express that this formation is a good fill out to discuss the issues and relevant topics to make the article alone. Kochavi is also a basic definition of historian by Howell and Pervenier having her own perspective that moulds the people into her own idea of the topic of the history.This point shows how the author authenticates the knowledge and evidences that she obtained throughout the process research and discussion of the text. Another manifestation was the sense that the Communist Chinese soldier was able of exhibiting inhuman resilience, partly because of the leaderships alleged low regard for human life (53). This part of the article showed the thoughts and arguments of Kochavi in regards with the context of the war. There are several points that she obtained throughout the text and all of these were discussed with certain evidences from different books, articles, discussions, and interviews.It was seen in the article that the author is making her assertions with points and justification to her main idea. As she discussed the inclusion of Washington to the war of China and Soviet Union, she is armed with different learning, ideas, composition, facts, evidences, and relevant materials to fulfill her goal for the text. That is why as the article went to its end, the readers would have greater knowledge towards the war and the ways on how Washington or the whole United States faced the issues and complications of the war.Kochavi decoded the facts and discussed it through her own senses and ideas to formulate better perspectives and identity to this part of history. At the said(prenominal) time, prominent Foreign Service Russian experts, respected in the administrations higher counsels, deemed Rostows prognosis too optimistic (62). This part of the text discussed other relevant data and analysis to the topic. It is a form of comparison because Kochavi used to define and describe the capabilities, skills, knowledge, and identity of the Russian experts as they discuss the war. The author attempted not to become bias with her own thoughts and ideologies.That is why she recognized some ideas and analysis o verture from other historians or experts in different countries especially to the concerned countries during the war to show their struggles, emotions, and own sales booth of the battle. Therefore, Kochavi slowly obtained the fourth key to become a good historian for she already discussed the key aspects in tortuous case to make her readers understand well her input, subject, and point of view. On the other way around, as the article evolves and articulates its main thought, the author also narrates her simple ideas towards the scenario or the chosen topic that she faced.In no small measure, Washingtons handling of the split was shaped by the policymakers preconceptions regarding China and the Soviet Union, as well as by perceived domestic factors. Yet, this article demonstrates that news organs and intelligence products played a significant role (71). The last part of the text, he discussed the main points that she wanted to convey. by means of this, she has the willpower to lea rn and continue growing in the field of history that only few could acquire.She see the sources that she has in greater sense of responsibility towards her readers. The attempts, attacks, symbolisms, and signs that Kochavi used to perform her duty as a historian and gives the readers the understanding of the content and rationale that shows the political, social, and economic aspects of war during 1960s. In conclusion to this, it can be said that Noam Kochavi did not only made a good effort to discuss the points and revelations of the Sino-Soviet War but she also made some input that moulds the readers on how they will perceive this certain part of history.It is true that historians give the idea of acquiring the facts of history as based on Howell and Pervenier. History is always in the hands of the historians because they give life to the past as we readers continue to nurture our minds in whatever facts, evidences, and information that we obtain through reading and acquiring kno wledge. Work Cited Kochavi, Noam. 2000. Washingtons View of the Sino-Soviet Split, 1961-63 From Puzzled Prudence to Bold Experimentation. Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 1 (Spring) 50-79