Wednesday, November 27, 2019
The JFK Assassination - Conspiracy or Single Gunman Adolf Hitler, the Nazi dictator of Germany during World War II, once said, "The bigger the lie, the more people will believe it." Although this may sound ludicrous, we can see many example of this in the world's history. One example would have to be the John Fitzgerald Kennedy assassination. For over thirty years the people of the United States were led to believe that a single gunman shot and killed Kennedy in Dallas on November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m... However, in this paper, I will dispute the ancient analization of the facts that show a single gunman was involved, and try to show that a conspiracy must have been present. According to the old facts regarding the case of the JFK assassination, Kennedy was killed by a single gunman. On November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. CST (Central Standard Time), Kennedy was riding in an open limousine through Dallas, Texas. At this time, Kennedy was shot in the head and neck by a sniper. He was then taken to Parkland Memorial Hospital, where he was pronounced dead. Later, police arrested Lee Harvey Oswald, a former U.S. Marine, at a nearby theater. By the next morning, Oswald was booked for the murder of President John F. Kennedy. Two days later, Oswald was killed by Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub owner, while he was being moved from the city to the county jail. At a glance, the above story sounds as if this should be an open-and-shut case. After all, according to the facts above, Oswald must have killed Kennedy. However, you must take a deeper look into this case. Many people who witnessed the murder of John F. Kennedy dispute the facts above, saying that they heard shots from places besides the book depository, and other things that may contradict what is stated above. One of these Marino, 2 witnesses, Abraham Zapruder, captured the entire assassination on his Bell and Howell eight millimeter movie camera. This movie, cleverly called the Zapruder Film, is the single best piece of visual evidence in this case. In order to more clearly understand the Zapruder Film, it is necessary to break it down into frames. The particular Bell and Howell movie camera that Zapruder was using ran at eighteen and three-hundredths (18.3) frames per second. When using this frame system, you must remember that all shots were actually fired several frames before the number that is assigned to them. For example, the fatal heard wound, called Z313, was probably fired at Z310, since it took 2-3 frames at 18.3 frames per second for the bullet to reach the victim. Also, you must remember that sound travels at about one thousand-one hundred (1,100) feet per second, or a little over half as fast as the Mannlicher Carcano's bullets. When keeping this in mind, it is expected that witnesses heard the shot at some point after the bullet passed. The following shows a break down of the frames of the Zapruder film: - The Presidential limousine first comes into view at frame 133 (the starting point of this timeline.) - The first shot at (or just before) Z187 would have passed through both Governor Connally and the President. Marino, 3 - The second shot, which passed above the limousine at Z284, missed the President and hit the curb near witness James Tague. This caused his minor would. - At Z313, the fatal shot occurs, which blew out major portions of the Presidents brain and skull. - A fourth shot occurred at Z323 (slightly 1/2 second after the fatal wound at Z313). Due to the proximity of this report to the one at Z313, as well as it's more distant origin, most witnesses were unable to hear this shot. Thus, the above is when the bullets hit either Kennedy or Connally, or passed through the frames of the Zapruder film (in the case of the second shot). Of the one-hundred seventy-eight (178) witnesses at Dealey Plaza, one-hundred thirty-two (132) said that they hear exactly three shots. If Oswald was a single gunman, it would have taken him at least 2.3 seconds to reload his Mannlicher Carcano rifle. However, the
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Book Report The book Rebecca, is written by Daphne DuMaurier. This story takes place sometime in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. The book is about a simple young woman who marries a widowed man, and their life together and the secrets she finds out about this mans life. The narrator of this story is a very important character. She is never given a name but she is the woman who marries Mr. De Winter, another main character of the story. They meet in Monte Carlo, and they marry shortly after. The narrator is described as a delicate, plain looking woman. The reader gets the impression that she is fairly young and very timid. She describes herself as having Ã¢â¬Ëmousy hair and thin lipsÃ¢â¬â¢. The narrator has a huge role in this book because she is the woman that comes in and replaces Maxims (Mr. De Winter) other wife. The other wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Rebecca. The narrator and Rebecca have nothing in common. Rebecca was a very outgoing, beautiful, evil woman. The narrator is a very shy, reserved, sweet woman. The narrator has a very hard time running the household that she has gained possession over. We see this in the ways she talks to the servants in the house. She seems much more afraid of them, than they are of her. One example is when a charac ter Mr. Favel comes to visit Ms. Danvers and the narrator tries to hide from the two in order to avoid and uncomfortable situation. She seems to often forget that she is the mistress of the house and that she should have control. She is constantly pushed around and verbally abused by Ms. Danvers. Ms. Danvers constantly taunts the narrator with stories of Rebecca and how she received much more love and attention from Maxim. Throughout the book the narrator struggles with her shyness and lack of control. Towards the middle of the book she slowly starts to realize that in order to be respected by her household, she must take control. She starts to order things to be done, and have things her own way. For instance,... Free Essays on Rebecca Book Report Free Essays on Rebecca Book Report Book Report The book Rebecca, is written by Daphne DuMaurier. This story takes place sometime in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. The book is about a simple young woman who marries a widowed man, and their life together and the secrets she finds out about this mans life. The narrator of this story is a very important character. She is never given a name but she is the woman who marries Mr. De Winter, another main character of the story. They meet in Monte Carlo, and they marry shortly after. The narrator is described as a delicate, plain looking woman. The reader gets the impression that she is fairly young and very timid. She describes herself as having Ã¢â¬Ëmousy hair and thin lipsÃ¢â¬â¢. The narrator has a huge role in this book because she is the woman that comes in and replaces Maxims (Mr. De Winter) other wife. The other wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Rebecca. The narrator and Rebecca have nothing in common. Rebecca was a very outgoing, beautiful, evil woman. The narrator is a very shy, reserved, sweet woman. The narrator has a very hard time running the household that she has gained possession over. We see this in the ways she talks to the servants in the house. She seems much more afraid of them, than they are of her. One example is when a charac ter Mr. Favel comes to visit Ms. Danvers and the narrator tries to hide from the two in order to avoid and uncomfortable situation. She seems to often forget that she is the mistress of the house and that she should have control. She is constantly pushed around and verbally abused by Ms. Danvers. Ms. Danvers constantly taunts the narrator with stories of Rebecca and how she received much more love and attention from Maxim. Throughout the book the narrator struggles with her shyness and lack of control. Towards the middle of the book she slowly starts to realize that in order to be respected by her household, she must take control. She starts to order things to be done, and have things her own way. For instance,...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
LAW - Essay Example As such, the national courts are under an obligation to promote EU law. However, the English courts follow a dualist approach in dealing with cases of non Ã¢â¬â compliance. This practice has resulted in a number of barriers for the UK courts to integrate the EU law with their national legislation1. In order to interpret the EU law, the European Court of Justice mainly depends on three sources; namely, the EU Treaties, Articles of the Treaties and provisions of EU law. The ECJ deals with cases of breach of EU law by Member States if their national legislation fails to correctly interpret the EU law. The ECJ then examines the legal basis of the Acts enacted by the institutions of the EU to find out their legality and practicality. Member States refer cases of infringement of EU law to the ECJ for the proper interpretation of EU law2. In the context of European integration, the United Kingdom has retained its parliamentary sovereignty to a very limited extent, in several matters relating to the European Union. The UK cannot escape from being penalised for breach of EU law; and it cannot determine the scope and extent of the penalties imposed upon it. Furthermore, the United Kingdom cannot abstain from implementing any directives issued by the EC nor does it have the power to withhold parts of directives from being implemented. This was established in the case of Factortame in 19913. In that case the parliamentary sovereignty of the UK was completely ignored by the European Court of Justice. The House of Lords refused to implement the Merchant Shipping Act 1988 on the plea that the Act challenged and derogated from, parliamentary supremacy in the UK. In another case, namely, R v. Secretary of State for Employment4, the House of Lords held that the Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978 was not in accordanc e with the EU Law. Their
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The market position of Nivea for men in UK - Essay Example (Euromonitor, 2010) Bargaining power of suppliers (Low): Nivea has a high bargaining power with respect to its suppliers because of its diverse portfolio and generating economies of scale (Beiersdorf AG , 2010). Bargaining power of buyers (High): Customers of men grooming products have high bargaining powers due to low switching costs, price sensitivity to grooming products etc (Kay, 2006). Threat of Substitutes (Medium): Nivea for men has a high threat of substitutes from general grooming products, natural products such as olive oil etc. (Heijden, 2005) SWOT Analysis for Nivea For Men In order to fully understand the competitive advantages and vulnerabilities of Nivea, (Beiersdorf AG, 2011)we conduct the following SWOT analysis for Nivea for men: The Boston Group Matrix The overall market growth of the menÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming market is 3% (2009-2014 CAGR) (Euromonitor, 2010) and the relative market share of Beiersdorf (Nivea for Men) is low. Market share of Beiersdorf AG is 5.3% (2011 ) as compared to 32% of P&G (Euromonitor, 2010). With a low market growth and low market share, Nivea for Men falls into the Dogs enterprise position, which indicates that Business is a cash trap (BRS Inc). The best thing that Nivea for Men can do is to focus on short term, avoid risky investments and look into niche segments. Where do we want to be? (Strategy Formulation) This stage of marketing strategies planning describes the objectives and aims of NiveaÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing plans, the strategy formulation for its brandsÃ¢â¬â¢ growth and identification of Ã¢â¬Å"the business weÃ¢â¬â¢re inÃ¢â¬ . Before defining the objectives of NiveaÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategies, we must recollect the competitive advantages that Nivea for men... This research describes the Situation analysis or Market Audit for Nivea in the menÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming market in UK considering both External and Internal perspectives. Nivea currently holds the #2 spot in menÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming category for the UK market. The Ã¢â¬ËNivea-for-menÃ¢â¬â¢ case-study details the challenges that Nivea for men is having in the menÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming market in UK. Upon extensive analysis of the market and competition, it is evident that Nivea-for-men even though is a leading and important brand for both Beiersdorf and overall market, itÃ¢â¬â¢s sales still lag behind the flagships products of P&G and Unilever. The growth opportunity that is seen for Nivea for Men is the growing skin care segment with a CAGR (2004-2011) of 17.8%. Owing to the iconic branding of Nivea in skin-care products, Beiersdorf possess a competitive advantage in penetrating and increasing the skin-care market for men. In order to do so, they should segment their consumers on attribute s of age and shopping behavior. Target segments identified for Nivea for men are Adult adopters, midlife adopters, senior adopters, and midlife experimenters. The various attack strategies that Nivea for men can use are products bunding, progressive promotions and pricing. The various defence strategies that should be implemented by Beiersdorf are flanking defense and position defence. With proper risk management in place with respect to the implementation and control of marketing plan, it is bound that market share of Nivea for men will increase in the UK market.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Geography - Assignment Example In reality, Western Europe probably has the resources to handle the aging population. What many experts are noting, however, is the reality that many traditional values are slowly being forgotten due a decrease in the native population of the region. The number of immigrants flooding into the region, bringing with them their own culture, values, and ways of life, is slowly blending in with other Western Europe traditions. This is slowly creating a new culture that many fear will mean the loss of many long-standing traditions that have been in place across the continent for centuries. Russia is facing yet a different crisis in terms of their recent decline in the native population. In previous decades, war and cultural conflicts have nearly decimated various sectors of the native population. This is quite troubling to the Russian people and they are fervently seeking out ways to reverse this trend and protect the less dominant groups residing within their borders. This brief paper wil l examine the issues surrounding this population decline within both Western Europe and Russia in an effort to better understand the importance of reversing this trend moving forward. Western Europe Western Europe has been undergoing a period of decline in terms of native population for quite some time now. Take Germany as an example. In Germany, if you take away immigration numbers, the net population would actually be declining. If these trends continue, Edmonston (2006) points out that, Ã¢â¬Å"The German population will eventually decline because of below replacement fertility, if net immigration does not counteract that decreaseÃ¢â¬ (p. 513). Even if immigration does make up for the initial decline, the fear is that German culture will slowly be eroded and rewritten. The argument here is not centered on whether or not immigrants can assimilate into German culture. The reality is that immigrants are fulfilling a labor need and they are adjusting to the German way of life in re cord numbers. If this trend continues, however, certain traditions and values that Germans have held dear for centuries could easily become forgotten. The reality of population decline and the potential erosion of cultural values is not limited to Germany. All over Western Europe countries are grappling with the reality that native population growth is simply not keeping up with an aging and dying society. From the United Kingdom to France to Scandinavian countries, governments are faced with difficult decisions about how to deal with the problem. Part of the problem in Western Europe appears to be sociological in nature. Europeans, under systems of democracy, have seen less of an emphasis on class divisions in recent years. In addition, the general population is more materialistic than before and young adults have big dreams and ambitions for their life. Because of this, and the sheer expense of raising children, the birth rate has plummeted to levels never before seen. All of thes e reasons, and others, combine to form a reality where population growth simply becomes difficult to achieve (Ross, 2003, pp. 710-711) Russia The entire region of Russia has been experiencing a decline in their native population as well. In
Friday, November 15, 2019
Project Planning And Challenges Facing Planners Construction Essay This chapter will review the literature which has been used for this dissertation. A number of important aspects will be covered, including an overview of Construction Planning as well as determining what challenges are faced on a daily basis by construction planners. This chapter will also review research relating to Planning techniques used and software packages available within the Construction industry. 2.2 Construction Project Planning Project Management can be seen as the application of tools and techniques utilised to guide the use of resources towards achieving an intricate task within the constraints of time, cost and quality. From conception to completion, a mixture of these tools techniques is necessary to fit the task environment and project life cycle. (Oisen 1970). The British Standard for project management (BS6079 1996) defined project management as, The planning, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the project objectives on time and to the specified cost, quality and performance. The UK association of Project Management (APM) have produced a UK body of knowledge UK (BoK) which also provides a definition for project management as The planning, organisation, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all involved to achieve the project objectives safely and within agreed time, cost and performance criteria. The project manager is the single point of responsibility for achieving this. Project Management as we know today has evolved in order to plan, coordinate and control the complex and diverse activities of modern industrial, commercial and management change projects. (Lock 2007) To allow for effective planning and control of projects, a requirement for systematic and logical methods should be applied along with proven techniques, thus ensuring a successful project outcome for all concerned parties, particularly the client. Without planning it is difficult to envisage the successful conclusion of any project or the effective control of time, money or resources. Planning is also essential in order to deal with construction risks and devise safe working methods. (Cooke 2008) Project Planning is defined as the establishment of a set of directions in sufficient detail to tell the project team exactly what must be done, when it must be done and what resources to use in order to produce the deliverables of the project successfully. (Zwikael 2008). Construction planning is an essential and challenging activity in the management and implementation of construction projects. It occupies the choice of technology, the description of work tasks, the estimation of the necessary resources and durations for individual tasks, and the identification of any interactions among the different work tasks. Hendrickson (1998) believes a good construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the schedule for work. It is therefore common to adopt a conspicuous importance on either cost control or on schedule control as illustrated in Figure 2.1. Fig 2.1 (Hendrickson. 1998) Walker (2007) considers that by having a project schedule to work to and sticking to it, you will well be on your way to delivering successful projects. This would be dependant on effective communication and efficiency at all stages of the project and with an aim to reducing risk, time and cost. 2.3 The Construction Planner Construction project planning is receiving growing attention as the limitations of formal deterministic planning are becoming more widely recognised. (Winch, Kelsey 2004). There is growing concern over the failure of construction planning to achieve its goals in spite of the considerable resources allocated to it. Deficient planning techniques are commonly blamed for this state. (Laufer, Tucker, 1987) There has been considerable debate over the last decade or so on the effectiveness of construction project planning. However, there is remarkably little research into what construction project planners actually do. Laufer and Tucker provide a critique of construction planning. They protest that:- the planning and evaluation of planning processes are non-existent there is over-emphasis on critical path methods planners lack construction experience planners have poor information gathering methods planning is control-oriented instead of action-oriented Plans are been poorly presented with overly-complex information. In a subsequent paper (1994) Laufer and his colleagues look at the definition and allocation of planning work. They found that there was no clear system at work and planning was done in a multiplicity of ways. They call for the process to be properly co-ordinated by a single individual who will own the planning process and improve communication. Winch and Kelsey (2005) believe the specialist planner has the time to do the work but incomplete practical knowledge. The line manager has the practical knowledge but does not have the quality time to carry out the task. The specialist planner has better strategic decision-making skills than the short-term decision-making focus of the line manager. They then go on to say Line managers see the delegation of key decision-making to another as a threat to their position. These problems are confirmed in Laufer (1992) wider project management study and can result in: The planner preparing a plan which has incomplete information and in-adequate decision making authority. The line manager treating such plans as merely an irrelevant forecast prepared by another. Allen Smallwood (2008) believe Construction planners and the role they perform are little understood both within the construction industry and the wider environment where construction has a daily impact. Planning occupies a central position in the functions of the manager. His responsibilities may vary with organisational philosophy and contingency but planning invariably remains an essential ingredient of his duties. (Steiner, 1979). Much Research and Development effort has been made during the last three decades but progress with techniques has not removed the dissatisfaction with the application and results of construction planning (Choudhury 1981, Mason 1984, Morton 1983). Effective construction planning demands that it is carried out by competent and experienced personnel. While the estimator must remain in charge or pricing the work, most contracts, today, are too complex for the estimator to handle the technical content of pre-tender appraisal. It is here that the construction planner has a major function. 2.4 Planning Techniques Most planning techniques aim to express the work to be done, to a time-scale; some also include resources, and perhaps cost and value. In simple terms, they intend to help control time and cost. The other major factor in project control, quality, is controlled by its own family of control techniques; and quality is related to time and cost through the skill and judgement of the project management team. Neale (1989) believes the major components of planning techniques are: Activities: literally, being busy, expending energy, consuming resources, taking time; in construction planning, this means a job to be done; for example preparing a drawing, an order to be places, a hole to be dug, bricks to be laid in a wall, a flow of water to be diverted. Activity durations: the time required for the completion of each activity Project time-scale: the time structure of the project; it is usual to give each week in the project a number (this makes calculation easier), and these then have to be related to calendar dates, holidays, etc. Event: an occurrence at a specific point in time; for example, the granting of planning consent, of the start or end of a traffic diversion. Work method: the plan must be expressed in some logical way, indicating the sequence of operations, and which activities and events are interrelated; this may be implicit (as with bar charts) or exlicit (in network analysis, where work method is usually called logic.) Resources: often called the four Ms (men, machines, materials and money) but can include overheads (for example, site accommodation), and even such essentials as managerial skill. Costs: what the work has or will cost, often derived directly from the unit costs of the individual resources. Value: what has or can be earned by payment for work done derived from the bill of quantities, the estimate or an internal budget. The calculation of value-to-date can be used as an overall measure of project progress. The following four techniques are often used in construction planning; Bar charts, Network analysis, Line-of-balance Linear programmes. 2.4.1 The bar chart/ Gantt Chart Drafting of a bar chart is popular because it produces results which are easy to understand and not too searching of the planner. Its use is limited to planning straightforward work with simple relationships between the activities. This graphical technique still forms the foundation for most resource scheduling. Its major drawback is that even minor deviations from it require extensive redrafting as a result making it more difficult to having to hand a contemporaneous bar chart that is a reliable indicator of future events. The main features of the bar chart are as follows: The activities are listed on the vertical axis Time is shown on the horizontal axis. This may be an appropriate time unit, such as months or days. Each bar is divided horizontally into two, with the top half representing when the activity is planned to take place, and the bottom shared in, as proportions of the activity are completed. A vertical movable marker line indicates the current time, thus enabling the observer to note if any activities are behind programme, and to what extent. Refer to Figure 2.2 for additional information. Figure 2.2 Typical bar chart The format of the bar chart presumes that the end user (client) can involve the same judgment that was in the mind of the planner when he was compiling it. In highly repetitive or simple work it can be implied that the users will better understand the thought process of the planner. However as project complexity increases the users ability to monitor the project in relation to the programme is reduced unless it is understood: What work is important to progress? Of the activities currently behind programme what, if any, effect do they have on overall progress? On the contrary, if most of the actual work is ahead of programme, does this mean that the current prediction is that the project will be complete in advance of the targeted completion date? The answer is definitely not an automatic yes. To provide an informed response, an understanding of the relationships between programme activities is crucial. Neale (1989) consider these deceivingly simple questions contradict issues which are at the heart of many construction disputes, namely considerations for extension of time. 2.4.2 Network Analysis Unlike a bar chart, activities are not shown on an axis of time. What the network portrays is the logical relationship between activities. Network analysis is a powerful, logical and analytical technique. It is most effective when used for complicated projects, especially those with external constraints and complex interrelationships. The technique is based on drawing the logical relationships between construction operations, and from an analysis of the relative durations, establishing which operations have the most crucial effect on the project duration. It can be drawn in a number of ways, the most well-known in the UK being the arrow diagram. Figure 2.3 Network diagram The technique is sometimes known as the critical path method (CPM), and critical path analysis (CPA). A version which incorporates a statistical method for calculating the probability that a project will be completed on a specific date is called the programme evaluation and review technique. (PERT) The identification of a critical path focuses the attention of the individuals managing the project and highlights to clients and their advisors the tasks that require to be particularly well managed with regard to time. The duration of critical path represents the shortest duration in which the project can be completed. Delays to activities on the critical path transmit directly through to extend the project completion date. This provides advanced warning of the pending delay to completion and enables the contractor (or employer) to invoke recovery action at a useful point in time rather than waiting until it is manifestly obvious that the completion date is threatened. If the employer or his Architect/Engineer (A/E) instructs additional work which affects the activities on the critical path then the contractor has grounds for a claim for an extension of time. The term critical path is widely used in the construction industry; what is not fully appreciated is how easily the critical path can change. Figure 2.4 Network diagram showing critical path Network analysis has a good and inclusive logical basis, lends itself easily to computer processing, and can be used as an effective control tool. These exceptional characteristics are also known to be its principal weakness as it is easier for the planner to be drawn into a level of planning and analysis that is much to detailed and advanced for most construction projects. 2.4.3 Line of Balance Line of balance is a specialised technique used for repetitive work. It derived from the manufacturing industry and has been found to be effective in planning work truly repetitive. Examples of success applications include planning the construction of identical floors in high rise construction, and large housing developments. Line of balance has been found to be difficult to use on projects which have a high demand for trades or operations to construct each identical unit. The problems arise not from the technique itself, but from the difficult of showing all the information on one chart, particularly when using the technique to monitor progress. When used to plan, it can be an excellent means of relating resources, activity durations and the general pace of work on site. Neale (1989). Illingworth (1993) considers the line of balance approach has largely fallen out of use in todays industry due to the fact it was designed primarily for housing and did not readily provide clear visual appreciation of the situation at a glance. Figure 2.5 -Typical line of balance diagram 2.4.4 Linear Programme (or time-chainage chart) Linear programming is a specialised technique for linear work. This is a basic tool of UK road contractors. Other successful applications include the construction of a large canal in a developing country, and it is especially useful in tunnelling. Illingworth (1993). Similar to line of balance, this is a simple two- dimensional graphical technique and can show clearly only a limited amount of information and limited degree of complexity. Figure 2.6 Linear Programme (Neale 1989) 2.5 Which technique? The experienced planner in construction needs to be aware of the techniques available, together with the value of each, both in the planning analysis role and how then can be applied to give effective control and communication to management on site. Illingworth (1993). Like any other professional, the planner has to select the right tool for the job. To make the correct decision, it is therefore a requirement to examine what is wanted in a particular situation programme. Illingworth (1993) believes the main points of this choice are as follows: Does the method aid initial analysis of the situation and especially in establishing the best sequence of events? Are deficiencies in progress shown up as the work proceeds? Can visiting management obtain and immediate view of the contract situation on arrival on site? With the preponderance of subcontractors on site today, does the programme method give assistance in cash flow control? According to Illingworth, from these questions it is unlikely to be the answer to all desires. Therefore it is said to be better to consider the situation in two stages tender planning on the one hand and the operational planning after the contract has been won, on the other. 2.6 Planning Practice In order to explore further the reality of construction project planning semi-structured interviews were conducted between July and December 2000 with 18 experienced planners from five leading UK construction firms. Most of the planners interviewed were currently involved in planning at the tender stage including assembly and presentation of the tender documentation. About half of those were also involved at the tender/ pre-construction stage. Only a few were further involved during the site works. (Refer to figure 2.7). Generally, although a number of the interviewed planners had on-site experience the typical pattern is that a planner works either at the pre-tender, pre-execution stages or on site but not simultaneously. The exceptions tend to be where planners work for some time on a single large project. In such cases it may make sense (from the employers point of view) for their work to carry on to the execution stage. Figure 2.7 Planning Practice, G.M Winch and J.Kelsey 2.7 Programming Considerations at the Tender Stage Upon receipt of tender documentation, the contractor will appoint human resources tasked with compiling a tender submission based upon the tender enquiry. One of the main individual in this team is the person accountable for producing the tender programme, the construction planner. Whether or not the contractual terms require a programme to be produced or not should be irrelevant at this stage. The tender programme is an important document produced by the contractor which is used for measuring many risk and cost related issues. In particular, the assessment of cost of the contractors time related preliminary items as drawn off the content of the tender programme. For example, the anticipated on site durations for different members of staff, periods of scaffold hire and duration for site accommodation are items that cannot be priced by the estimator without reference to the tender programme. When compiling the tender programme, the construction planner must incorporate the information supplied with the enquiry noting any specified constraints contained in either the contract bills, specification or drawings. Conflict between documents often exists and a view had to be taken on how to proceed. Clarification may be sought from the employer or his agents, assumptions made and stated along with the submission or the conflict may be ignored and the information that best suits the contractor is assumed without qualification or statement. It is accepted in the industry that many bids are won or lost on the programme duration alone. This happens frequently where a bill of quantities is being priced and the experienced contractors tend towards similar prime cost for similar items. On completion of reviewing tender documents, drawings, specification and bills, which may be typically done over a period of one or two weeks, the construction planner will establish the work scope which will be addressed in the creation of a tender programme. The main objective is to be aware of the specified period for construction. Additional to the completed programme should be a schedule of resources which corresponds with the programme and a series of method statements signifying construction techniques and equipment to be employed in carrying out the work. 2.8 Programming on Site When the contract is won, the site planning is equally important. It is usually at this point that the site manager will have his first chance to examine the methods on which the job was priced. What is important to recognise, at this point, is that planning must be seen as an addition to management. Thus the site manager must have the right to question the planning methods on which the contract was priced. To do so, site managers require the technical expertise to assess what has been put forward. In so doing, the manager concerned must, for his part, accept that if he wants to change the method from that in the priced tender, he must demonstrate that his alternative is obviously cheaper, or at least as cheap, as that priced in the tender submission. When final agreement has been reached, the planning function can be established on site and develop the final method to be adopted. This, in turn, will lead to the contract master programme and such subsidiary programmes as may be necessary. On completion of all methods being confirmed the construction planner continues to have a significant role on site. First, in developing control and short-term programmes for all organisations contributing to the contract under the main or managing contractor. Second, the construction planners cherished knowledge of how the work was originally planned makes him uniquely placed to examine the potential consequences of alterations to what has to be built. In this area he is a valuable source of information to the site quantity surveyor when assessing where possible contractural claims may arise. Today, with the ever increasing use of trade sub-contractors as well as specialist service contractors, the experienced construction planner has the option of either seeing the role as satisfying its own right, or as an essential ingredient of experience for becoming a successful site manager. Illingworth (1993). 2.9 Purpose of a Programme The values applicable to the mechanics of construction planning are similar whether you are a main contractor submitting a quotation to an employer, a sub-contractor quoting to the main contractor, or even a construction manager providing programme assist to an employer. Common principles apply when compiling a construction programme, that of methodical analysis. The contractors construction programme is an important common reference. It shows how the planner they have interpreted the contract documents and other information from which the statement of intent for construction is issued. As the key programme for the construction work, its content is of the utmost significance to all parties charged with handing over to the employer a building fit for purpose within the contract time stated. A well prepared programme is vital to every construction project. Many activities have to be cautiously defined and given a time scale, and it necessary not only to assemble and list the information but also to display it visually in terms of the contracts objectives and the calendar. The working sequences and the relationships between individual activities must be clearly conveyed in this visual presentation. The Chartered Institute of Building (2001). They consider the construction programme to be a statement of intended actions, which when properly used provides management with its plan of campaign. It should communicate with ease, providing the common reference for the timing of all activities related to the project. 2.10 Construction Planning Software An expert planner faced with the task of producing and analysing a network for a project containing only few activities will undoubtedly produce the fastest results by drawing a freehand arrow diagram and analysing it mentally. Lock (2007). He believes it is likely to take longer when using a computer because of the formalities needed to set up the new project files in the system and enter the data. David Arditi and Ann Rackas compiled a short report in May of 1986 with an aim in ascertaining the need for computer software to assist is construction planning and scheduling. This report concluded, the individual needs of a given construction company are the primary reasons for choosing a particular software package. For example, one of the participating general contractors basic requirements was to have a 40-character activity description field: a particularly individual need. They continued to suggest if a program is to survive the inevitable shakeout that occurs after the initial development and interest have peaked; it must offer the features and capacities that are required by the user. In addition, every effort should be made to make computers less mysterious and confusing as they will be dealing with the construction market. Today there are many planning software packages available to the construction industry. Asta Powerproject, Microsoft Project, Primavera, PERT Master to name a few. Each package is commonly suited to the individual needs of the planner. Some programs present a blank Gantt chart on the screen as soon as they are booted up, and it is apparent to the user that task data can be typed in immediately. Most programs allow the user/ planner to establish project durations, critical path network, allocate resources, assign costs to tasks and monitor progress throughout the project. As a result, most construction planning professionals use such packages daily. 2.11 Construction Planning Challenges Lock (2007) considers anyone planning a project of significant size will soon find out that there are a number of factors, both inside and outside the project organisation that can have an effect on the planners intentions. These are as follows: 2.11.1 External Factors Figure 2.8 External Factors (Lock, 2007) All projects are subject to risk, many of which can have an enormous impact on plans. Lock (2007) deems the following are just four from the long catalogue of happenings that can be categorised as Acts of God: An earthquake devastates a project organisations headquarters. A hurricane and flood put a project site under a metre of water and delay the start or ruin the work in progress. An influenza epidemic puts half the project workforce out of action. (Swine flu outbreak 2008 recorded thousands of people off work for over 5 days.) The project manager (a keen golfer) is struck by lightning. The national government can play an important part on the smooth running of a project. E.g. the project could be government-funded and is cancelled or abandoned through a political decision. Lock (2007) also considers less immediate concerns which are the wider and longer-term economic consequences of government policy leading to downscaling of projects, delays and cancellations in all sectors of industry. Decisions made outside the project team can also have an affect on many characteristics of planning. E.g. a decision is made at directorate level to carry out a project in a different company within the group from that initially anticipated or a strategic decision is made to cut short all new staff recruitment resulting in a lower number of available resources formerly expected to be available for projects. 2.11.2 Working Factors Figure 2.9 Working Factors Lock (2007) These are items which are likely to affect the project team on a daily basis. Examples include availability of resources, materials etc. People are believed to be a construction organisations greatest resource. Construction operations depend on the knowledge and skills of people planning and executing the work. Muir (2005.) Research has been carried out to reveal that the construction industry is typically viewed as being one of the least attractive industries in which to work. Safety plays an important part in the running of a project. Construction by nature is unsurprisingly dangerous with a high degree of hazard and risk. The Health Safety Executive believe each year: Over 1 million injuries and 2.3 million cases of ill-health are experienced by workers; Around 40 million working days are to lost; and Over 25000 individuals are forced to give up work because of injury or ill health. These cost British employers on average Ã £3.3 to Ã £6.5 billion each year. Most organisations are oblivious of these figures and are often astonished to find out what the actual costs are. Recent HSE Examples (2009) An injury to a worker using an unguarded drill cost a small engineering company Ã £45,000. And that was not all. The managing director was prosecuted from which two employees had to be made redundant to keep the company afloat. At the other end of the scale the Piper Alpha explosion killed 167 people and incurred estimated costs of over Ã £2 billion. Accidents in construction can account for 3 6 % of total project costs. 2.11.3 Contribution of effective Planning Figure 2.10 Contributors of effective Planning (Lock, 2007). Effective Planning and scheduling influences the results of a project as is promotes well-organised working. Personnel who are not trying continually to overcome crises caused by bad planning can dedicate more time to achieving high quality standards. A well-planned project stands more chance of being completed on time and on budget. 3.0 Methodology Based on the findings in Chapter Two, a questionnaire was compiled aimed towards Construction Planners, Project Managers and other Construction Professionals. The questionnaire was developed in order to reach a significant conclusion on what is happening in the industry today, confirming what challenges are faced on a day to day basis and what can be done for improvement. The author contacted various professionals in the industry whom were contacted via Chartered Institute of Building website in order to get a mixed response. A letter was sent to each individual asking if they could spare time to answer 20 questions which were related to the research. The letter can be found in appendix. In addition, an online link to the questionnaire was sent to over 40 professionals in the industry, from which over 23 people took the time to fill it in. All results can be found in Chapter 4. 3.1 Introduction The aim of this study is to analyse current planning techniques used within the construction industry and determine what influence the construction programme has in terms of project success. In order to achieve this aim, sufficient research has to be carried out. Research design is an action plan for getting from here to there, where here may be defined as the initial set of questions to be answered, and there is some set of conclusion (answers) about these questions. (Naoum 2007.) Between here and there may be a found number of major steps, including the collection of analysis of relevant data. (Yin 1994.) Developing a successful strategy was an important step towards the collection of key research information. 3.2 Research Strategy Research is the systematic and rigorous process of enquiry which aims to describe phenomena and to develop and test explanatory concepts and theories. Ultimately it aims to contribute to a scientific body of knowledge. (Bowling 2009.) There are two types of research strategies, namely, quantitative research and qualitative research. Deciding on which type of researc
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Social Science Approach to the Study of Political Economy in Post-1949 China In order to understand the political economy of China in post 1949, The Great Leap Forward, this essay will discuss three key points.Ã It will start with examining the theories and concepts.Ã Then it will evaluate the literature and online resources from Western and Chinese (translated) sources. Ã And lastly, it will look at the problems of research methodology. Theories and Concepts Theories and concepts about the political economy of China after the 1949 revolution revolve around who will take control of the Chinese Government and solve the economic problems of the country.Ã Chinese leaderships, which is consisted by Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, Chen Yun, and Chu Teh, consolidated power quickly moved apparently to gain the confidence of Chinese population.Ã In order to resolve the economic problems, especially food shortage and high food prices, they need to reestablish the social relationships in the countryside to gain their support and produce larger quantities of agricultural products. Ã Here enters a new concept Ã¢â¬â the restructuring of and implementations policies.  The Great Leap Forward was a new approach that was believed by the Chinese leaders to concurrently grow modern and traditional sectors Ã¢â¬â industrialization and agriculture. This new approach did not actually balanced the two sectors rather it only gives both of them the importance. More importance was still given to investment but unlike in Soviet model, the Great Leap Forward did not concentrate on few lines of investment. Making the investment lines for them was pushing the ceiling upward. On the other hand, agriculture was given an added importance. Under the new approach, labor was the idea to substitute capital. Likewise, another idea was to substitute surplus labor to capital formation. These two ideas were conceptually based on labor absorption and employment generating effects of industrialization. Under the Great Leap Forward, the solution imposed by the Chinese leaders was creation of communes. Communes are the state-feudalism form of solution thought by the leaders. According to Gabriel in 1998, the prevalence of the communist fundamental class process is reflected in communes. This happens because of the main reason that institutions are being created in communes. However, communes were not achieved. Collective appropriate and distribution of the surplus product made within the enterprise by the direct producers was .implied in the process. In effect, the workers had no power to control their collective surplus. Another reflection is that unlike in capitalism, workers are paid according to the number of hours and days they give their service. Therefore, capitalist institutions were not communes. Workers from the rural settings worked with obligations. The government was the one made the appointment of the commune management. It was during the later period of the Great Leap Forward when all the management is all from the urban. The government is the institution that controls the surplus from the communes. The feudal relationship reflected in this scenario between the government and the workers was the obligation of the workers to work in communes. The government was reflected as the feudal lord during the approach in the Great Leap Forward. From communism, CPC wanted to transform the country to socialism. Socialism is the social state between communism and capitalism. The exact meaning of Socialism was not understood in China. In fact, its meaning had liberty on different interpretations. For instance, the construction of socialism by the Soviet Union means rapid industrialization and strict centralization. On the other hand, leader Mao Zedong viewed socialism as intellectual foundation of the left-wing of the CPC.Ã The difference on the vision of Mao Zedong on socialism required the wholesale destruction of pre-revolutionary institutions. According to Mao, feudal lords and social structure had to be removed. For Mao, new political, cultural, and economic order must be created. In addition, MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal requires new peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s army.Ã Accordingly, the proposal also requires the jurisdiction of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s court that must at all level. Lastly, the association of peasant must be all the way through the countryside and considering the workers, a well established council in industrial enterprises is also needed. The revolutionary transformation proposed by Mao was followed by their government. Lands from feudal lords were taken possession of, and farmers gained more control on their productive capacity. There was also a better market for economic and social exchange. The communist party officials aimed for every Chinese village to have its cadres. This was part of the agenda of the government to encourage greater cooperation among farmers. The party still feared the intervention of foreign countries. In effect of this approach, the central authorities provided eyes and ears within the countryside. Accordingly, the approach the government gave the rural producers available markets for their products. Those policies of the government were essential in achieving the goal of unifying China under a central authority. The land reform significantly reduced hunger and malnutrition in the countryside of China. This was proved after the implementation of the revolutionary transformation. There were no significant detrimental impacts of feudal lords after the lands were confiscated. Accordingly, rural farmers were able to put better use of their resources and its reproductive potential. Through elimination of feudal lands, the excess/surplus output was allowed to be invested. If they were not invested, they were used to finance the new social institutions and public goods. Consequently, life and work of rural direct producers were made easier. More so, increase in the living standard due to the revolutionary transformation was delivered and reached many rural direct producers and their families. Ã Incomes of the rural direct producers were improved by the significant improvement of the products they were producing. In general, nourishment, clothing, shelter and health in line with production were achieved by the rural community. In accordance to the revolutionary change, the expansion in the role of women in economic and political life was given importance and improvement. The state recognized both labor coming from males and females. For the state, both labors are valued in the national economy of China. In 1953, Mao proposed the Five-Year Economic Plan or the FYEP via the central plan. Under the plan, production quotas were expected but no quality standards were required. Consequently, the impact on demand was negative. According to Gabriel, Ã¢â¬Å"the motivation system created significant waste of inputs, unhappy consumers, unhappy wage laborers, and unhappy rural direct producers.Ã¢â¬  In addition, the government bureaucrats were unhappy due to the failure of their plan. During the recognition of the failure of the plan, Mao called for a movement. The liberty in expressing unhappiness of the Chinese public was collectively joined through the Ã¢â¬Å"Hundred Flowers MovementÃ¢â¬ . The second Five-Year Economic Plan or the SFYEP were then taken advantage of Mao and his fraction. Literature Review Like other literature about China, literature about this theme on political economy of post 1949 China were mostly written by Western people. Ã Thus, it is more on Western perspective.Ã And like any historical data, literature about this topic is mostly descriptive. There are few that are analytical in nature and that could be found in the form essays.Ã And because it is more on descriptions and chronology of the events, it failed to give the deeper overview of the essence of the topic in history. Likewise, there are literatures that are either biased or shortened.Ã An example is the article about the Chinese Leader Mao Zedong.Ã Many writers wrote Mao who was accused of Ã¢â¬Å"Famine DeathÃ¢â¬ . One-sided story was delivered and presented in the Chinese public. Only the problems that occurred during 1959 until 1961 were understood by them. The relationship between success and failures were not given. There was improvement in the life of the Chinese public that should be recognized along with socialism. The methodologies of the research conducted in proving MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s accusation of famine death were biased and shortened. Deaths due to natural disasters were accountable on what the people and other research claimed to be MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s failure on implementation of policy. Policy error during the MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s regime was what the common research claimed. According to Ball (2006), Ã¢â¬Å"millions of lives of Chinese people were saved.Ã¢â¬  More or less 16.5 Million Chinese people were recorded in official Chinese sources. The release was in line with the ideological campaign against the inheriting the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. The problem and issue on validity of the figures presented were questionable. There is anonymity on how the data were gathered. In addition, data and its preservation also seek for validity. Ã The sources and figures which claimed the statistical count for the death during the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution were released only twenty years after it happened. This figures and sources were obtained from the researches conducted by America, in which, as stated by Joseph Ball in his article, the American researchers increased the figure by 30 million Ã¢â¬â a combination of Chinese evidence with their own speculations from ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s censuses.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ball used statistics from ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s census and was able to gather the true figure. He also used other publications like Jung Chang and Jon HallidayÃ¢â¬â¢s book. In their book Ã¢â¬Å"Mao: the Unknown StoryÃ¢â¬ , it was reported there that 38 million deaths from the Great Leap Forward was included in the total of 70 million Chinese people who were killed by Mao during his regime. The controversy regarding the origins of Chinese communism has not been completely resolved but nonetheless ended as the government strengthens the revolutionary struggle.Ã The generation of the specialists who followed and are much more trained as social scientists than historians, faced the challenge of documenting the Chinese communism development which, in many respects, is similar to its Soviet predecessors. Those who are in contemporary Chinese studies field faced another controversy when the event of Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution which came along with communism perspective needed to be explained.Ã There are renewed interests and disagreements as well which aroused over the continuing importance of indigenous political traditions.Ã Ã This was debated by the scholars who are trained with the growing field of political science, and attached with the modernization principles.  There are materials written guided by a singular theoretical framework to critique the Marxian theory that shapes the political and economic strategies of the Communist Party of China or CPC.Ã One of the most serious flaws of Chinese literature which attempts to explain the post 1049 China is illiteracy on Marxian theory of most Chinese who study the Chinese civilization, literature and language.Ã Ã There is a failure in the knowledge of the differences between various forms of Marxian theory that have deployed and contested in China.Ã And there are materials which are used in the attempt to make up with these flaws.Ã These materials provide a critique of Ã¢â¬Ëmodernist MarxismÃ¢â¬â¢ in the CPC style, and its rationale for maintaining monopoly control over China.Ã  Methodology Problems There is indeed a problem in research about this topic.Ã This is due to limited resources that are really reliable to contain facts.Ã And since it is written on descriptive and chronological manner, our analyses are limited to our understanding, our culture and environment. Going back to the example we gave about Mao, the flaws on the research conducted by the Western focused only on the excesses of the policy during MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s regime. These excesses on the policy were then exaggerated. In addition, the researchers did not grasp a thorough understanding on how some policies were developed and for what purpose. Therefore, the understanding on how Chinese people were benefitted by those policies was not understood and was not accounted in the research the western made. Evidences from the peasants were entirely different from the claim of the researches presented by the western. The statistics of the deaths during DaoÃ¢â¬â¢s regime were supported by the Chinese census. Only a pure and unbiased research can obtain the true figures and conclusion. However, there are scholars who are not Chinese, who take time to study China through observations, living with the Chinese people, interviewing them especially the rural people, and visit different cities and towns.Ã These ways of research and study are useful, although there is also a problem when it comes to language.Ã We know that language is a soul of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s culture.Ã There are parts of the language that change in meaning when you translate in other language.Ã In here, the flaw comes on the real meaning of the context. Moreover, there is a continuing effort in many scholars in changing the approach of writing and discussing about the history in general.Ã Their attempts hope to instill critical analysis and more explorations in different context of China. Bibliography Ball, Joseph, Ã¢â¬ËDid Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã A Monthly Review, 23 September 2006, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Cheng, Chu-Yuan, Ã¢â¬ËThe Economy of Communist China, 1949-1969: With a Bibliography of Selected Materials on Chinese Economic DevelopmentÃ¢â¬â¢, Questia Media America Inc., 1971, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Gabriel, Satya J, Ã¢â¬ËThe Structure of a Post-Revolutionary Economic Transformation:The Chinese Economy from the 1949 Revolution to the Great Leap Forward,Ã¢â¬â¢ Satya GabrielÃ¢â¬â¢s Online Papers: China Essay Series,Ã 1998, retrieved 5 Novemebr 2007, . Gabriel, Satya J, Ã¢â¬ËChinese Capitalism and the Modernist Vision,Ã¢â¬â¢ China Essay Series, 2007, retrieved 13 November 2007, . Harding, Harry, Ã¢â¬ËOrganizing China: The Problem of Bureaucracy, 1949-1976,Ã¢â¬â¢ Harry Harding; Stanford University Press, 1981, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Joseph, William, Ã¢â¬ËA Tragedy of Good Intentions: Post-Mao Views of the Great Leap Forward,Ã¢â¬â¢ Modern China, 12; 419. SAGE Journals Online and HighWire Press platforms, 1986, retrievedÃ 5 November 2007, . Lee, Hong Yung, The Politics of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, Berekeley: Univ. of California Press (1978). Li, Shaomin, Ã¢â¬ËTransforming China: Economic Reform and Its Political Implications,Ã¢â¬â¢ China Economic Condition 1949 1976 (2003) 10, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Richman, Barry M, Ã¢â¬ËIndustrial Society in Communist China: ChinaÃ¢â¬âEconomic ConditionsÃ¢â¬â1949-1976,Ã¢â¬â¢ Random House, 1969, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Schram, S, The Thought of Mao Tse-Tung. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1989). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Ã¢â¬ËChina,Ã¢â¬â¢ Encyclopedia article; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 52323Ã pgs, 2004, retrieved 5 November 2007, . Perry, Elizabeth J, Ã¢â¬ËIntroduction: Chinese Political Culture Revisited,Ã¢â¬â¢ Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China, Second Edition, retrieved 13 November 2007, .  Gabriel, Satya J, Ã¢â¬ËThe Structure of a Post-Revolutionary Economic Transformation:The Chinese Economy from the 1949 Revolution to the Great Leap Forward,Ã¢â¬â¢ Satya GabrielÃ¢â¬â¢s Online Papers: China Essay Series,Ã 1998, retrieved 5 Novemebr 2007, .  Gabriel, The Structure of a Post-Revolutionary Economic Transformation: The Chinese Economy from the 1949 Revolution to the Great Leap Forward  Ball, Joseph, Ã¢â¬ËDid Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã A Monthly Review, 23 September 2006, retrieved 5 November 2007, .  Ball, Joseph, Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?  Perry, Elizabeth J, Ã¢â¬ËIntroduction: Chinese Political Culture Revisited,Ã¢â¬â¢ Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China, Second Edition, retrieved 13 November 2007, .  Perry, Elizabeth J,Ã Introduction: Chinese Political Culture Revisited.  Gabriel, Satya J, Ã¢â¬ËChinese Capitalism and the Modernist Vision,Ã¢â¬â¢ China Essay Series, 2007, retrieved 13 November 2007, .
Sunday, November 10, 2019
PROBLEMA 1 The Maser is a new custom-designed sports car. An analysis of the task of building the Maser reveals the following list of relevant activities, their immediate predecessors, and their duration. Job LetterDescriptionImmediate Predecessor(s)Normal Time (days) AStart Ã¢â¬â 0 BDesignA8 COrder special accessoriesB0. 1 DBuild frameB1 EBuild doorsB1 FAttach axles, wheels, gas tankD1 GBuild body shellB2 HBuild transmission and drivetrainB3 IFit doors to body shellG, E1 JBuild engine B4 KBench-test engineJ2 LAssemble chassisF, H, K1MRoad-test chassisL0. 5 NPaint bodyI2 OInstall wiringN1 PInstall interiorN1. 5 QAccept delivery of special accessoriesC5 RMount body and accessories on chassisM, O, P, Q1 SRoad test carR0. 5 TAttach exterior trimS1 UFinishT0 a)Draw a network diagram for the project. b)Mark the critical path and state its length. c)If the Maser has to be completed 2 days earlier, would it help to i. Buy preassembled transmissions and drivetrains? ii. Install robots to halve engine-building time? iii. Speed delivery of special accessories by 3 days? )How might resources be borrowed from activities on the non-critical path to speed activities on the critical path? PROBLEMA 2 MANAGING HARD ROCKÃ¢â¬â¢S ROCKFEST At the Hard Rock Cafe, like many organizations, project management is a key planning tool. With Hard RockÃ¢â¬â¢s constant growth in hotels and cafes, remodeling of existing cafes, scheduling for Hard Rock Live concert and event venues, and planning the annual Rockfest, managers rely on project management techniques and software to maintain schedule and budget performance. Without Microsoft ProjectÃ¢â¬ says Hard Rock Vice-President Chriss Tomasso, Ã¢â¬Å"there is no way to keep so many people on the same page. Ã¢â¬ Tomasso is in charge of the Rockfest event, which is attended by well over 100,000 enthusiastic fans. The challenge is pulling it off within a tight 9-month planning horizon. As the event approaches, Tomasso devotes greater energy to its activities. For the first 3 months, Tomasso updates his MS Project charts monthly. Then at the 6-month mark, he updates his progress weekly. At the 9-month mark, he checks and corrects his schedule twice a week.Early in the project management process, Tomasso identifies 10 major tasks (called 2 acti vities in a work breakdown structure, or WBS): talent booking, ticketing, marketing/PR, online promotion, television, show production, travel, sponsorships, operations, and merchandising. Using a WBS, each of these is further divided into a series of subtasks. Table 1 identifies 26 of the major activities and subactivities, their immediate predecessors, and time estimates. Tomasso enters all of these into the MS Project software. Tomasso alters the MS Project document and the time line as the project progresses. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s okay to change it as long as you keep on track. Ã¢â¬ he states. The day of the rock concert itself is not the end of the project planning. Ã¢â¬Å"It Ã¢â¬â¢s nothing but surprises. A band not being able to get to the venue because of traffic jams is a surprise, but an Ã¢â¬ËanticipatedÃ¢â¬â¢ surprise. We had an helicopter on stand-by ready to fly the band in,Ã¢â¬ says Tomasso. On completion of Rockfest in July, Tomasso and his team have a 3-month reprieve before starting the project planning process again. Discussion Questions: 1. Identify the critical path and its activities for Rockfest. How long does the project take? . Which activities have a slack time of 8 weeks or more? 3. Identify five major challenges a project manager faces in events such as this one. 4. Why is a work breakdown structure useful in a project such as this? Take the 26 activities and break them into what you think should be level 2, level 3 and level 4 tasks. TABLE 1 Some of the Major Activities and Subactivities in the Rockfest Plan. ActivityDescriptionImmediate Predecessor(s) Time (Weeks) AFinalize site and building contracts Ã¢â¬â7 BSelect lo cal promoterA3 CHire production managerA3 DDesign promotional Web siteB5 ESet TV dealD6FHire directorE4 GPlan for TV camera placementF2 HTarget headline entertainersB4 ITarget support entertainersH4 JTravel accomodations for talentI10 KSet venue cpacityC2 LTicketmaster contractD, K3 MOn-site ticketingL8 NSound and stagingC6 OPasses and stage credentialsG, R7 PTravel accomodations for staffB20 QHire sponsor coordinatorB4 RFinalize sponsorsQ4 SDefine/place signage for sponsorsR, X3 THire operations managerA4 UDevelop site planT6 VHire security directorT7 WSet police/fire security planV4 XPower, plumbing, AC, toilet servicesU8 YSecure merchandise dealsB6 ZOnline merchadise salesY6
Friday, November 8, 2019
History and Origins of Thanksgiving Day Almost every culture in the world has celebrations of thanks for a plentiful harvest. The legend of the American Thanksgiving holiday is said to have been based on a feast of thanksgiving in the early days of the American colonies almost four hundred years ago. The tale as it is told in grade schools is a legend, a mythologized version that downplays some of the bleaker history of how Thanksgiving became an American national holiday. The Legend of the First Thanksgiving In 1620, the legend goes, a boat filled with more than one hundred people sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to settle in the New World. This religious group had begun to question the beliefs of the Church of England and they wanted to separate from it. The Pilgrims settled in what is now the state of Massachusetts. Their first winter in the New World was difficult. They had arrived too late to grow many crops, and without fresh food, half the colony died from disease. The following spring, the Wampanoag Iroquois Indians taught them how to grow corn (maize), a new food for the colonists. They showed them other crops to grow in the unfamiliar soil and how to hunt and fish. In the autumn of 1621, bountiful crops of corn, barley, beans, and pumpkins were harvested. The colonists had much to be thankful for, so a feast was planned. They invited the local Iroquois chief and 90 members of his tribe. The Native Americans brought deer to roast with the turkeys and other wild game offered by the colonists. The colonists learned how to cook cranberries and different kinds of corn and squash dishes from the Indians. In following years, many of the original colonists celebrated the autumn harvest with a feast of thanks. A Harsher Reality However, in fact, the Pilgrims werent the first immigrants to celebrate a day of thanksgiving- that probably belongs to the Popham colony of Maine, who celebrated the day of their arrival in 1607. And the Pilgrims didnt celebrate every year afterward. They did celebrate the arrival of supplies and friends from Europe in 1630; and in 1637 and 1676, the Pilgrims celebrated the defeats of the Wampanoag neighbors. The celebration in 1676 was memorable because, at the end of the feast, the rangers sent to defeat the Wampanoag brought back the head of their leader Metacom, who was known by his adopted English name King Philip, on a pike, where it was kept on display in the colony for 20 years. The holiday continued as a tradition in New England, however, celebrated not with a feast and family, but rather with rowdy drunken men who went door to door begging for treats. Thats how many of the original American holidays were celebrated: Christmas, New Years Eve and Day, Washingtons birthday, the 4th of July. Historians believe that there are two connections between the festival held in Plymouth colony and what we celebrate today. Those are a collective and cleaned-up national memory, which arose in the 18th century after the Revolutionary War established a new nation; and in the mid-19th century when that nation came perilously close to breaking, an editor provided a weary Abraham Lincoln an idea to attempt to unify that nation. A New Nations Celebration By the mid-18th century, the rowdy behavior had become a carnivalesque misrule that was closer to what we think of as Halloween or Mardi Gras today. An established mummers parade made up of cross-dressing men, known as the Fantasticals, began by the 1780s: it was considered a more acceptable behavior than the drunken rowdiness. It could be said that these two institutions are still part of Thanksgiving Day celebrations: rowdy men (Thanksgiving Day football games, established in 1876), and elaborate mummer parades (Macys Parade, established in 1924). After the United States became an independent country, Congress recommended one yearly day of thanksgiving for the whole nation to celebrate. In 1789, George Washington suggested the date November 26 as Thanksgiving Day. Later presidents were not so supportive: for example, Thomas Jefferson thought that for the government to proclaim a quasi-religious holiday was a violation of the separation of church and state. Before Lincoln, only two other presidents proclaimed a Thanksgiving Day: John Adams and James Madison. Inventing Thanksgiving In 1846, Sarah Josepha Hale, the editor of Godeys magazine, published the first of many editorials encouraging the celebration of the Great American Festival. She hoped it would be a unifying holiday that would help avert a civil war. In 1863, in the middle of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln asked all Americans to set aside the last Thursday in November as a day of thanksgiving. In the midst of a civil war of unequaled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to foreign states to invite and to provoke their aggression, peace has been preserved... The year that is drawing towards its close has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies... No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious gifts of the Highest God... It has seemed to me fit and proper that these gifts should be solemnly, reverently, and gratefully acknowledged as with one heart and voice by the whole American people; I do, therefore, invite my fellow-citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea, and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next as a Day of Thanksgiving and a Prayer to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the heavens.Ã (Abraham Lincoln, October 3,1863) Symbols of Thanksgiving The Thanksgiving Day of Hale and Lincoln was a domestic event, a day of family homecoming, a mythical and nostalgic idea of the hospitality, civility and happiness of the American family. The purpose of the festival was no longer a communal celebration, but rather a domestic event, carving out a sense of national identity and welcoming home family members. Homey domestic symbols traditionally served at Thanksgiving festivals include: Turkey, corn (or maize), pumpkins and cranberry sauce are symbols which represent the first Thanksgiving. These symbols are frequently seen on holiday decorations and greeting cards.The use of corn meant the survival of the colonies. Indian corn as a table or door decoration represents the harvest and the fall season.Sweet-sour cranberry sauce, or cranberry jelly, was onÃ the first ThanksgivingÃ table and is still served today. The cranberry is a small, sour berry. It grows in bogs, or muddy areas, in Massachusetts and other New England states.The Native Americans used the fruit to treat infections. They used the juice to dye their rugs and blankets. They taught the colonists how to cook the berries with sweetener and water to make a sauce. The Indians called it ibimi which means bitter berry. When the colonists saw it, they named it crane-berry because theÃ flowersÃ of the berry bent the stalk over, and it resembled the long-necked bird called a crane.The berries are still g rown in New England. Very few people know, however, that before the berries are put in bags to be sent to the rest of the country, each individual berry must bounce at least four inches high to make sure they are not too ripe! Native Americans and Thanksgiving In 1988, a Thanksgiving ceremony of a different kind took place at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine. More than four thousand people gathered on Thanksgiving night. Among them were Native Americans representing tribes from all over the country and descendants of people whose ancestors had migrated to the New World. The ceremony was a public acknowledgment of the Indians role in the first Thanksgiving 350 years ago. Until recently most schoolchildren believed that the Pilgrims cooked the entire Thanksgiving feast, and offered it to the Indians. In fact, the feast was planned to thank the Indians for teaching them how to cook those foods. Without the Indians, the first settlers would not have survived: and, furthermore, the Pilgrims and the rest of European America have done their level best to eradicate what were our neighbors. We celebrate Thanksgiving along with the rest of America, maybe in different ways and for different reasons. Despite everything thats happened to us since we fed the Pilgrims, we still have our language, our culture, our distinct social system. Even in a nuclear age, we still have a tribal people.Ã -Wilma Mankiller, Principal chief of the Cherokee nation. Updated by Kris Bales Sources Adamczyk, Amy. On Thanksgiving and Collective Memory: Constructing the American Tradition. Journal of Historical Sociology 15.3 (2002): 343Ã¢â¬â65. Print.Lincoln, Abraham. A Proclamation by the President of the United States of America. HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Weekly October 17 1863. History Now, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History.Pleck, Elizabeth. The Making of the Domestic Occasion: The History of Thanksgiving in the United States. Journal of Social History 32.4 (1999): 773Ã¢â¬â89. Print.Siskind, Janet. The Invention of Thanksgiving: A Ritual of American Nationality. Critique of Anthropology 12.2 (1992): 167Ã¢â¬â91. Print.Smith, Andrew F. The First Thanksgiving. Gastronomica 3.4 (2003): 79Ã¢â¬â85. Print.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Amazon It Strategy Essays Amazon It Strategy Essay Amazon It Strategy Essay Consumers, particularly young consumers, Increasingly view the Internet as their primary source of entertainment. This trend in attitude is the driving force 1 OF 7 Detente Innovations Tanat seek to merge ten Attitudinally AT televisions, PCs, gaming consoles, smart phones etc. Players in this space, such as Rook, BIJOU, and Applets, have focused on ways to facilitate the watching of downloaded or streaming movies on TV and channels like BBC and HOBO make their content available on the internet where users can watch them anytime. As this trend evolves, devices that provide multiple functionalities will win consumers largely. Televisions that allow on-demand video streaming, AD, live gaming, online shopping and quick browsing will wipe out the dumb boxes, Just like smart phones that replaced traditional cell phones. In addition, companies like Nettling have expanded their business model to online video streaming in response to the decline in the purchase and rental of DVDs. This evolution is mainly attributed to the change in behavior of consumers who care more about what they want to watch than from what source or on what device. Streaming and portability across multiple devices Consumers demand more value and convenience for their purchase. There is an increasing demand for portability across multiple devices. A user should be able to stream a video through Apple tunes on her PC and be able to watch it on her car entertainment system while traveling. To add to her experience, her car entertainment will know where exactly she stopped watch the same video on her PC and will start playing from there. This is the internet of things in the media industry. 3. Evolving ecosystem There have been three major trends in the digital media ecosystem: Move from pure competition to strategic partnerships Recently, Nettling has signed up with Amazon to move its web technology to Amazons loud, though it competes with Amazon on DVD rentals and video streaming. This is just one example where competitors partner with each other to grow together with industry and increase the size of the pie. One might expect more partnerships among the movie studios, content distributors, app developers and device manufacturers and lesser vertical integration Entry of new players As the ecosystem evolves, it attracts the entry of new players into different businesses. The emergence of internet of things will create opportunities for device manufacturers, platform and app developers and telecoms service providers to play a ajar role in shaping the future of the industry. In addition, the growing market will invite big and smaller players outside media industry to grab a share for themselves. Wall-Marts purchase of Vaduz is one such case and an older classic case is, of course, the launch of Amazon Video On-Demand! Cross-sector opportunities convergence Just as media industry creates opportunities for new entrants, the technology, consumer base and data possessed by the existing players makes them important components in other sectors. Personal gadgets like watches can become an integral ice in the internet of things and play a major role in connecting to the cloud and streaming authentication. Further, when live streaming technology matures and the demand for tell-health rises, platform and app developers like Amazon and streaming device manufacturers TIVOLI and Rook can leverage their technology expertise in the healthcare sector. We already experience a convergence between the digital media and publishing sectors with players like Amazon and Apple increasing presence in both and building technologies like pads which blur the distinction between media and publishing for an end-consumer. These cross-sector opportunities will bring about more and more convergence, wherein a every company will be able to influence multiple sectors and generate revenue across industries. This, in turn, will be enabled by and will lead to more complex partnerships and licensing deals. 4. Cloud is the enabler For the trends discussed above, including the internet of things and on demand streaming, cloud computing will be the enabler. More and more companies across industries want to get on to the cloud to decrease costs and focus efforts on their core business. This explains why the bandwidth consumed by Amazons global besides is far less compared to that consumed by its web services. The cloud is important specifically to the media industry because it is the most efficient approach to handle customer data, distribute streaming APS, enable devices to talk to each other and above all content storage. 5. Getting closer to the customer than ever before As per a Minute report, between 2007 and 2009, online video ad sales increased 161. % from $424 million to $1. 1 billion. The category includes video ads, layovers, and banner ads within videos. In spite of these rapid gains, Online video currently accounts for only 3. % of ad dollars spend on media, making it a clear target for growth. To fill this gap, there is a need for extensive data analytics and innovative means to understand the customer better. Amazon is big on tracking customer behavior and leveraging it in different aspects of its business. Media distributors are in a very unique position to reach the customers and we see players like Tivoli investing heavily in data analytics. Some other players partner with companies like Google to transform the data they own into useful information that can be modernized. Real-time data analytics gives an opportunity for players in this space. In an ideal world, Olive Gardens will want its ad to be displayed when a person is in a car watching a movie streamed through Amazon in the car entertainment system and is within 1 mile radius of its restaurant at 12 noon. At the end of the day, the one who wins is the one who can give the right ad to the right customer at the right time Amazon Lets take a look at Amazons mission statement once before getting in depth. To be Earths most customer-centric company where people can find and discover anything they want to buy online Breaking it down: customers Buyers, sellers, Developers, Partners Anything they want I Books, music, apparel, video, devices, web service, platform, applications. What is not obvious in this mission statement is that Amazon intends to expand their business, innovate and creep into multiple sectors leveraging their technology expertise. In short, Amazon wants to be disruptive in what they do! Amazon has strengths that are unique to its status and would not carry over to its competitors that emulate its design. The company is simply so different from other players in its space, be it retailers, software providers, digital media providers, that whats good for Amazon is not good for its competitors in different sectors. Strengths * Customer Relations Management * Information Technology * Data Analytics * Strong Brand * Innovative approach to new business development * Business strategy interwoven with IT strategy * Diversified business Opportunities * Cross sales * Partnerships established well in co-branding without brand dilution or lead a disruptive change Recommendation * Initiate On the basis of the emerging trends in the digital media industry and Amazons strengths and opportunities, I recommend that Amazon should develop a platform to enable video streaming across multiple devices using the cloud and lead the Journey towards internet of things in digital media space. Technology The platform will have many components: 1 . Web service that can be accessed by any device to access and store user data in the cloud 2. App that will enable devices to talk to each other 3. App that will stream video to any device (phone, TV, car). The key feature of this platform is device independence. Value Proposition to End-Users 1 . Purchase and watch videos online from Amazon Video On-Demand or Nettling using a delivery gadget- PC, smart phone, gaming console, TV 2. Your delivery gadget tells your personal synchronizing gadget watch, a dumb phone, MPH player or anything that you always carry with you about your video watching behavior 3. Personal gadget stores information in the cloud 4. When you are in your car or using your gaming console, you personal gadget accesses the cloud and transmits the information to the device in front of you 5. Your delivery device then knows what exactly you want to watch right now and starts playing it! Implications The New Ecosystem Amazons streaming platform well Drill In new players Into ten Logical meal ecosystem and also negatively impact some existing players Major Participants: Delivery Gadgets I TV, Smart Phones, PC, Car entertainment system, In-flight entertainments system, Gaming consoles I Content Distributors I Hull, Amazon Video On-Demand, Nettling, Apple tunes (? ) I Synchronizing Gadgets I Wrist watch, MPH players, dumb cellular phones, smart phones, PC,TV I Other participants include ad agencies and data analytics providers. Key Partnerships and Amazons Value Proposition * Tivoli: Tivoli will slowly disappear if internet of things starts gaining traction. Therefore partnering with Amazon to develop the streaming platform will be a insensible strategic move for the company. In return, Amazon can leverage Divots streaming technology and resources in building this platform. * Flash: Amazon can leverage its existing partnership with Flash and make it an integral part of the streaming platform to enable device independence. Thus any device that has Amazons app to stream videos will use Flash and any content distributor who participates will deliver Flash-compatible video. * Content Distributors: Companies like hull and Nettling do not have the technical expertise or resources to build a streaming platform to enable interconnectivity between devices. Partnering with Amazon and purchasing license to use its streaming platform will help these companies increase their customer base and the frequency of usage of their services (customers can now watch a hull video while flying). * Device Manufacturers: When this technology gains traction, end users will prefer to own a device that can enable a great, convenient entertainment experience whether it is a wrist watch, TV or a smart phone. But, on order to light a spark that will create this demand, Amazon needs to partner with device manufacturers and incentive them to have its streaming platform included in the device. Once the network effects start working and users show an increased demand, more and more device manufacturers will want to have Amazons app on their products. Thus both parties increase their reach to end users. * Network Infrastructure: Amazon will see a huge surge in bandwidth and server demands in the future. Therefore, it is important for Amazon to partner with companies like Zamia Technologies that can power their platform delivery from the cloud and seamless video streaming. To handle bandwidth needs, however, Amazon should leave it to the device manufacturers to make partnerships with telecoms companies like Ericson. Who stays neutral or loses in the game? * Youth: The nature of the videos, including length and quality, and the lack of organization will hinder Youth from reaping any significant benefit from this trend. Compass: The primary delivery channel for Compass is cable. Therefore Compass will not gain from the interconnectivity of devices. Rather, internet of things is going against their core business and if this technology gains traction Compass might not generate sizable revenue from on-demand video business. * Nettling: This technology and business model will cannibalize revenue from DVD purchase and mental for Nettling. However, there is already a decline in the demand for DVDs and therefore the increase in revenue from the interconnectivity and cross-streaming across evolves will outline ten centralization Impact. Pricing The end-user is concerned about prices in two forms: a. Price of Video Streaming: The content distributors will experience an increase in ad revenue and revenue from purchase of content because of the improved user experience with the new platform. In order to keep this revenue flowing, there should not be any significant increase in the price that users pay for content currently. B. Price of Devices: In order to experience the interconnectivity and convenience of cross-device streaming, end-users will be willing to pay a premium for devices that support this feature. To end-users, this is a one-time expenditure that will enable them enjoy the benefits over a long time (they dont pay a premium for content). Real- time Streaming Sports: There is a huge opportunity for sports channels to partner with content distributors to deliver real-time sports videos across multiple devices. Such videos are very valuable when watched live, but decrease significantly in value once the event is over. Therefore, this is a place where both the content owner and the distributor can demand a premium from end users and increase revenues. Revenue sharing Players who are very close to the end-consumer constantly are the ones to capture maximum value from data analytics and ads. The following table lays down the revenue model for the different players in this ecosystem Amazon | 1. Revenue from content distributors and device manufacturers by selling license to incorporate and use its platform 2.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Analysis of Problems Facing PETRONAS Corporation - Research Paper Example This essay aims at identifying and analyzing the challenges faced by organizations in the public sector. The specific challenge that will be discussed is the poor management of the Malaysian state-owned multinational corporation, PETRONAS. The current state of the organizations are also analyzed by the researcher in the essay after reviewing various resources on the organization selected. Recommendations are also provided by the researcher on the topic of how the organization can improve its performance and be effective in modern world. The public sector organization selected and analyzed in the essay is the Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS) Corporation. In conclusion, the researcher sums up the study and states that government-owned organizations receive high consideration and support from the government to effectively operate and achieve their goals. Similarly, PETRONAS Corporation is a Malaysian government-owned corporation that receives support from the government and enables the corporation effectively to exploit oil and gas fields in Malaysia and in other countries. Although PETRONAS is a government-owned company, it is a profit-based entity owned by the Malaysian government rather than a public utility organization. Currently, the corporation is among the top five best companies producing Liquefied Natural Gas in the world. It is stated by the researcher of the essay that the success attained by the corporation is dependent on the support of the Malaysian government.
Friday, November 1, 2019
DIscussion questions - Assignment Example Getting paid more than your fellow employees gives you a psychological advantage and one is made to believe that is getting treated special. But keeping in mind the tasks I had to deliver and the number of hours I was forced to work in order to meet deadlines never gave me personal satisfaction. I had friends in others companies in the same industry and they were getting paid almost as much as me but there was one major difference. The difference was that they were only responsible for accounts related work. They had a separate tax department that handled tax related works and had a storage supervisor who was responsible for checking and maintaining the stock level. So that meant I was doing task of three people all alone. Although the level of pay made things look reasonable, the level of commitment, focus and hard work always made me feel that I was being over worked and the incentive giving me was comparatively less. This feeling and heavy schedule went on forcing me to resign fro m work and opting for a different place. Technology has really made it easier for us to gather information on compensation; explore the Glassdoor website at http://www.glassdoor.com Click on the Companies and Reviews, then Best Places to Work feature and check out some of the company reviews and salary information, remembering that this is unsubstantiated, anonymous information. What did you find on this site? How useful do you think it is? The website contains a vast number of things related both, to the companies and the employees. The overview of the company is given along with a list of salaries being taken by employees at different positions. The average salary and the range of salaries for each department/position are given. This gives a fair idea of what starting pay should one expect and as time goes on how much raise in pay scale should be expected while staying at the company. A percentage of number successful, unsuccessful and waiting list (neutral) candidates are also gi ven. A prospective employee may analyze his chances of getting through in the interviews. Reviews of employees is also an important aspect, as one may get to know how well a company is treating its employees and understand whether he/she can adjust to such an environment. The number of jobs and positions available along with the job description helps one to assess whether to apply for the job or not. The thing that I found most useful was the information and split in categories of how people manage to get an interview. Most prospective employees donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to apply and what is the best mode of applying. Some may simply use the online portal while others may try getting a referral in a company before they even apply. They may be some individuals who go straight up to recruiting agencies and ask for their help and guidance. By analysing the information on people actually getting an interview, the possibility of managing to get an interview becomes much higher. Using Table 1 2.1, which two programs for recognizing employee contributions do you feel are most worthwhile from an employee motivation standpoint and why? Table 12.1 Employee Motivation Merit Pay Incentive Pay Profit Sharing Owner-Ship Gain Sharing Skill-Based Design features Payment method Changes base pay Bonus Bonus Equity Bonus Change in base pay when skill Frequency at payout Annually Weekly Semiannually or annually When stock sold Monthly or quarterly When skill or competency Performance measures SupervisorÃ¢â¬â¢