Saturday, August 31, 2019
Introduction Hacienda Luisita was once part of the holdings of Compania General de Tabacos de Filipinas, Sociedad Anonima, better known as Tabacalera, which was founded on November 26, 1881 by a Spaniard from Santander, Cantabria and Santiago de Cuba, Don Antonio Lopez y Lopez. He was the first Marques de Comillas and was famous for being an associate of the first Spanish Prime Minister with foreign blood, the Spanish-Filipino mestizo Don Marcelo Azcarraga y Palmero. His relative on his Spanish side, Ricardo Padilla, married Gloria Zobel y Montojo (younger half sister of Mercedes Zobel de Ayala de McMicking, largest Zobel owner in the Ayala group of companies) and was an aide-de-camp of Juan de Borbon, Count of Barcelona, father of the current King of Spain, His Majesty DonJuan Carlos de todos los Santos de Borbon y Borbon-Dos Sicilias. The estate was named after Antonio's wife, Luisa Bru y Lassus. Their son, Claudio Lopez, the second to hold the title , donated some of the profits to the Jesuits to create the Pontifical University of Comillas, a university outside Madrid. Lopez acquired the estate in 1882, a year before his death. Lopez was a financial genius who parlayed his work adventures in Cuba and Latin America into a steamship, companies and trading businesses. He was the most influential Spanish businessman of his generation and counted the Prime Minister and the King of Spain as his personal friends. Tabacalera was a private enterprise he founded with the sole intention of taking over the Philippine Tobacco Monopoly from the Spanish colonial government. This included the Hacienda Antonio (named after his eldest son), Hacienda San Fernando and Hacienda Isabel (named after his eldest daughter) in Cagayan and Isabela provinces where the legendary La Flor de Isabela cigar was cultivated. TabacaleraÃ¢â¬â¢s incorporators were the Sociedad General de Credito Inmobiliario Espanol, Banque de Paris which is now Paribas and Bank of the Netherlands which is now ABN-AMRO. The sugar and tobacco in the Philippines were the reason why the Lopez de Comillas family were able to donate such a huge pontifical university to the Jesuits on top of lavishing on their home, the Palacio de Sobrellano in Comillas and the Guell park (designed by Gaudi) in Barcelona. Don Alfonso Guell y Martos born in 1958, the fourth Marquis of Comillas, currently holds the title. He is also the Count of San Pedro de Ruisenada, the third to hold that title. Both are grandee status in Spain and as such can address the King as Ã¢â¬Å"mi primoÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"my cousin. Contrary to what was expected, Spanish-owned Hacienda Luisita did not languish when the Americans took full control of the Philippine government. In fact, Tabacalera as a whole experienced prosperous times because of the legendary sweet tooth of the Americans. With Cuban sugar not enough for their domestic market, the Americans tapped the Philippines for its sugarcane requirements. At one point during pre-war Manila times, Hacienda Luisita supplied almost 20% of all sugar in the United States. Luisita sugar became popular among Filipino (specifically Ilocano) expatriates in America just as much as Victorias sugar was popular among ManilaÃ¢â¬â¢s elite circles back home. The Americans also brought the centrifugal-based machinery which doubled the production of the estate and therefore did not require the cane to be loaded by truck to Laguna to be squeezed in the haciendas there, including those of the Roxas y Zobel families. As this new technology swept in Luzon and the sugar mills consolidated, many wealthy families fell into foreclosure or combined their resources. Some of the brave few like Honorio Ventura (who paid for Diosdado MacapagalÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling), the De Leons, Urquicos, Lazatins and the Gonzalezes did just thatÃ¢â¬â which is how PASUDECO came into being. Structurally, there was little change in the hacienda; Tabacalera y Compania positionedSpanish-Filipino and American-Filipino encargados and administradores to manage the vast estate. Like all haciendas and tabacaleras in the Philippines, the Hacienda Luisita continued to operate during the Japanese occupation. The Japanese were bent on ensuring that commodities such as sugar and rice be made available to the majority of the Filipinos, therefore avoiding any tempers of additional insurgencies and guerilla movements. The Spanish-Filipino administrators simply placed their subordinates, Japanese journeymen (who, like many impoverished Chinese immigrants from Fujian fled south to the Philippines for a better life) and Korean stevedores working as machinists in the centrifugal system, to the helm. This kept both the Japanese and the Spanish in good terms as both their interests were protected. As a matter of fact, even before World War II, the Tabacalera had in their payroll a good number of Japanese migrant workers doing odd jobs around Hacienda Luisita. (Before 1942, the Philippines was a first class colony in Asia while Hong Kong and Singapore were poor cities; Tokyo and Japan as a whole was relatively closed from the outside world then). When the Japanese Imperial Army marched into the country, these lowly migrant workers became valuable translators and managers. In conjunction with re-taking the Philippines from the Japanese, on January 25, 1945 General Douglas MacArthur moved his advanced headquarters forward to Hacienda Luisita. In the 1950s, the onset of the Hukbalahap rebellion led the Spanish owners of Tabacalera to sell Hacienda Luisita and the sugar mill Central Azucarera de Tarlac. Ramon Magsaysay, then president of the Philippines, blocked the sale of the plantation to the eager and wealthy Lopezes of Iloilo. During those times the brothers Fernando Lopez and Eugenio Lopez as well as their cousins were one of the wealthiest in all of the Visayas Islands, save for a few Chinese Filipino families in Cebu and Leyte, as well as the Familias Aliadas de Villegas, Teves, Lopez, y Rodriguez (a family with origins from Santander, Galicia, & Asturias; as well as China Ã¢â¬â Teves). Fearing the Lopezes might become too powerful after already owning Meralco, Negros Navigation, Manila Chronicle, ABS-CBN, various haciendas in Western Visayas and then the nearby PASUMIL consortium in del Carmen, Pampanga that they purchased from the Americans, the President offered the property to Jose Cojuangco, nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"PepeÃ¢â¬ through Magsaysay protege and Cojuangco's son-in-law, Benigno Aquino. Magsaysay also knew the Cojuangcos through his wife, Luz, of the prosperous Banzons, an old Chinese Filipino family. Unfortunately, President Ramon Magsaysay died in Mount Manunggal, Cebu in 1957. The sale was consummated in President Carlos P. GarciaÃ¢â¬â¢s term, a close ally of then Senator Ferdinand Marcos and five years from the day President Magsaysay offered the land. The Jose Cojuangcos were wealthy in land and bank holdings and in Philippine pesos. They were not wealthy in United States dollars which was closely regulated then by the Philippine Central Bank. In fact, Pepe and his wife Metring were not able to send PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s younger brother Eduardo Sr. (Danding CojuangcoÃ¢â¬â¢s father) to the United States for treatment for the mere fact that they could not exchange their pesos to dollars. Eduardo Sr or Endeng Lalake later died of kidney failure. The Jose Cojuangcos acquired the property in 1958 through a loan from the Government Service Insurance System and a dollar loan from the Manufacturers Trust Company of New York, which was guaranteed by the Central Bank of the Philippines, with consent from Miguel Cuaderno, its governor. Pepe also reduced his stake in the Paniqui Sugar Mills, though he and his cousins still managed it on behalf of his aunt, Ysidra Cojuangco, the matriarch. Hacienda Luisita was the largest investment he ever made. With the ink barely dry, he appointed not his eldest son Pedro but his son-in-law Benigno Aquino Jr as administrator. Pepe and Ninoy introduced an almost social welfare state: free medicines and check up, scholarships to colleges, free education, free food and equitable shares to the harvest, free child care and nutrition, free burials, a village with housing earmarked for the farmers, even free gasoline to the tractoras. Like the Paniqui Sugar Mills, not a single workersÃ¢â¬â¢ strike was instigated during their administration. Pepe barely made any money from the Hacienda Luisita. Understanding that the value of the Luisita is in the farmers who till it, he chose to rehabilitate the Filipinos who before were almost slaves under the Tabacalera. He was able to sustain these losses due in part of his other more money making investments in the Bank of Commerce and First Manila Management which owned the Pantranco buses and the Mantrade group. As Ferdinand Marcos was elected for a second term in 1969, the reverse happened to Pepe. At Bank of Commerce, where he and his brother Juan Ã¢â¬Å"ItoyÃ¢â¬ Cojuangco and nephews Ramon Cojuangco(later of PLDT; son of relative Antonio Cojuangco Sr) and Danding Cojuangco (eldest son of deceased brother Eduardo Cojuangco Sr) each owned equitable stakes, the last three factions planned a coup dÃ¢â¬â¢ etat by toppling him from the presidency of the said bank. The three did not want Pedro (PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s first born) to be bank president which was against the aging PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes. To avoid a scandal, Pepe Cojuangco sold his remaining shares in Bank of Commerce, almost equal to 28%, to his relatives. Thus Pepe lost his one of eventually three lifelines in nurturing the Hacienda Luisita. As the 1970s crept in and immediately after Benigno Aquino Jr imprisonment on false charges, PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s business empire began to wane. He was unable to purchase new machines and new technology for the aging sugar mill that stands in the middle of the estate because of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to PantrancoÃ¢â¬â¢s appeals for higher charges as compared to its competitors who have since been permitted so. Business critics believed it was MarcosÃ¢â¬â¢s way of pressuring Pepe to influence his son-in-law from attacking him and his wife, First Lady Imelda Marcos(who recently built the Cultural Center of the Philippines and whom Ninoy labeled as the new Evita Peron). His close business associate in First Manila Management of the Pantranco / Nissan Philippines / Mantrade fame, Manuel Lopa, died in 1974. With his death, the FMMC-Mantrade companies lost their immunity from the Marcoses (Manuel was a close personal friend of Speaker Daniel Romualdez, Imelda's uncle). Ambassador Benjamin Romualdez, brother of Imelda, then coerced Pepe and his son-in-law, Ricardo Ã¢â¬Å"BabyÃ¢â¬ Lopa (ManuelÃ¢â¬â¢s son) into selling the collection of 38 companies under First Manila Management to him. Baby and his wife Teresita Cojuangco, together with Pepe and the rest of the Lopa heirs, had no choice but to sell. The second lifeline disappeared with this extortion. In 1976, First United Bank, the banking concern Pepe built on his own after his ouster from the family owned Bank of Commerce which he saved from bankruptcy decades ago, was sold for an amicable amount to his nephew, Danding Cojuangco, who was then close to President Marcos, with both mothers being Ilocanas notwithstanding. The poorest branch of the Cojuangcos, the Eduardo branch, has become the richest through the sheer genius of Danding. Though this third lifeline disappeared in good terms, the Jose Cojuangcos were left with nothing but a half-rehabilitated and barely earningwhite elephant of a hacienda. Practically all of his farm workers mourned his death. Many flooded his funeral Mass to see him off. Pepe Cojuangco died on August 21, 1976, five years from the day of the Plaza Miranda bombing. His wife, Demetria Sumulong-Cojuangco, died due to colon cancer (the same disease that killed daughter Cory Aquino). Both died disappointed and broken-hearted. Their children and grandchildren zealously took key positions in the holding company to save the hacienda from the creditors, all of whom wanted to slice Luisita away save for Chinabank of Binondo, who defied the anger of President and Mrs. Marcos by continuing to help them. Chinabank was partly owned by the Dee, Sycip and Lim families. With Ninoy and his wife Cory Aquino in exile in Boston, the remaining children took drastic steps in ensuring that the hacienda continued to exist and operate. To maximize the productivity of sugar and therefore profitability, a certain level of economy must be reached. Thus the Jose Cojuangcos tried their best to keep the Luisita in one piece. They refurbished and re-used old 1950s era farm machines and tools, doubled capacity production maintained low expenses. There were a lot of reasons why Luisita remained in Cojuangco hands. One, it helped that Danding Cojuangco was the de facto kingpin of Tarlac and his kind mother Josephine Murphy Cojuangco was still cordial to them. For Marcos to touch Hacienda Luisita he also would have to force Agrarian Reform into the Ysidra Cojuangco haciendas which were under the supervision of Danding Cojuangco. Thus, many haciendas around Luisita were hacked to smaller pieces such as those of the De Leons[disambiguation needed ],Escalers, Urquicos, Arrastrias, Quiasons and Gonzalezes[disambiguation needed ] but not those of the Cojuangco. Two, it helped that the price of sugar spiraled so high because of President Marcos and Roberto Benedicto manipulating the sugar prices primarily in Negros Occidental. Third, Ninoy Aquino was not in the Philippines lambasting President Marcos in the underground movements. For as long as the Marcoses heard less of PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s son-in-law, the less government pressure there was on the Jose Cojuangcos. Most importantly, it helped that most of the farm workers who remember Pepe understood the frugality measures his children had to implement. On PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s death anniversary and that of the bombing of Plaza Miranda, Ninoy Aquino was gunned down in broad daylight, August 21, 1983. Upon the installation of his wife, Cory, PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, the property was folded into the Hacienda Luisita Incorporated established on August 23, 1988.  In compliance with the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program which at this time around did not exempt anyone whether or not they were close to President Marcos before, nearly 5,000 hectares of Hacienda Luisita were placed under astock distribution agreement between the landowners and farm workers. President Aquino wanted to make sure that all farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights are recognized. If the farmers agreed for a stock distribution agreement then the plantations would also remain intact. Many haciendas, including those assembled by Ysidra Cojuangco a century before, did not qualify or the farm hands there refused the offer. Thus, the majority of all Cojuangco lands disappeared while a Cojuangco was President of the Philippines. This caused a silent rift within the Cojuangco clan. All the lands where sugarcane and molasses were derived to feed the Paniqui Sugar Mills were hocked to appease the government program and those of the angry farm workers. Hacienda Luisita was saved by the perseverance of CoryÃ¢â¬â¢s siblings and the fact that most of the farm workers signed the agreement, counting that one day the life in Hacienda Luisita would be just as good as the time when Pepe and Ninoy used to managed it. However, development and new technology did not arrive in Cory AquinoÃ¢â¬â¢s term. She barred any relative from starting any new businesses. Furthermore, she forbade many among her siblings and cousins from retaking the family businesses lost in the 1970s unless it was sold back to them (as with the case between Romualdez selling back First Manila Management to the Lopa clan) or was awarded to them by the PCGG or Presidential Commission on Good Government. The old sugar mill in the middle of Luisita remained rickety and with holes in its roofs. After 1992, Cory Aquino stepped down from the Philippine presidency. That was also the time that elder brother Pedro Ã¢â¬Å"PeteÃ¢â¬ and sons Melecio Ã¢â¬Å"MelÃ¢â¬ and Fernando Ã¢â¬Å"NandoÃ¢â¬ entered the hacienda hoping to make it profitable. Mindful of the farm workers, they instituted very slowly the fiscal reforms to achieve this goal. This partly explains why every year from 1988 until 2008 the Hacienda Luisita and itsCentral Azucarera de Tarlac posted hundreds of millions of losses. Only in 2009, buoyed by the huge demand for sugar and the unpredicted fluctuating prices of Brazilian sugar, did the family corporation post a profit. The various siblings stopped contributing money from their own non-hacienda corporations for the benefit of PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s hacienda, which was a huge sigh of relief for them. On the other hand, the management style of the Pedro Cojuangcos lacked the charisma of the deceased Ninoy. His United States educated children, Mel and Nando, continue to strive to placate the needs of the farmers while balancing the budget. Sadly, when profit arrived so did the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ strikes. The unrest was blamed on the allies of current President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo who were shocked to see Cory Aquino joining anti-Arroyo rallies. Some blamed Danding Cojuangco since owning the hacienda would complement San Miguel and GinebraÃ¢â¬â¢s ethyl, molasses and sugar needs. This was refuted by Danding himself and his cousins believe in him. In 2005, the Department of Agrarian Reform canceled the stock distribution agreement, citing that it had failed to improve the lives of more than 5 000 farmer beneficiaries. Hacienda Luisita Incorporated appealed this decision, but in May 2006, the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council rejected with finality the motion of Hacienda Luisita Incorporated to reconsider the revocation of the stock distribution agreement. However, the Supreme Court issued a temporary restraining order, stopping the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council from parceling out the land to the workers.
Referring to at Least Two Sources of Data, Critically Discuss How Crime Is Measured in Britain and Explain Why the Statistics Do Not Provide Us with a Full Picture of How Much Crime There Actually Is.
SCS1007 ESSAY Referring to at least two sources of data, critically discuss how crime is measured in Britain and explain why the statistics do not provide us with a full picture of how much crime there actually is. If one were to ask how much crime there is in Britain, the judgement could differ depending on whom you were asking or their judgement on what they actually class as criminal behaviour. Society is ambivalent towards crime, which skews the analysis over the level of criminal activity in Britain.Maguire describes the area of crime numbers or trends as one of Ã¢â¬Ëshifting sandsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Maguire 2002, p,322) in terms of the developments and creations in criminological process and thought which happens day to day. He also argues that finding the true level of crime bears very little significance in the study of criminology, but what bears greater significance is the critical approach by which the data is analysed.Nevertheless, there are official police-generated crime statis tics in Britain, made up of reported and recorded crimes, which still, to this day impact on how politicians and journalists view the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness in dealing with crime. The Official Crime Statistics in England are published annually and allow various sectors of society such as the media, politicians and the general public to assess the extent and the trends in criminal activity.These published tables of national crime statistics named Ã¢â¬ËCriminal Statistics, England and WalesÃ¢â¬â¢ were first compiled in 1857 and were based on annual returns from the courts and the police which were then aggregated by government statisticians (Maguire 2002). Crimes recorded in police statistics are defined by the Ã¢â¬ËNotifiable Offence ListÃ¢â¬â¢ (ONS: Data sources Ã¢â¬â further information). This follows technological advances in recent times, which have grown the net number of police-recorded crimes, such as Ã¢â¬Ëcommon assaultsÃ¢â¬â¢. Many minor crimes have been upgraded and are now regarded as Ã¢â¬Ënotifiable offencesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Maguire 2002).However, there are significant shortcomings with the police-generated crime statistics, such as the fact that certain crimes are not included in this list, referred to by the ONS as Ã¢â¬Ënon-notifiableÃ¢â¬â¢ crimes. These crimes often include anti-social behaviour or minor crimes such as drunkenness, littering or begging. Whilst there is criminal activity occurring in Britain which does not come to police notice, and therefore is not recorded (discussed in detail later in this paper), there are crimes which the police are aware of, but use a great deal of discretion as to whether or not these crimes are recorded (Maguire 2002).The public are responsible for notifying around eighty per cent of recorded crimes to the police (McCabe and Sutcliffe 1978), however, the latter have the responsibility for deciding which crimes to deal with and which to ignore. Often they can regard some crimes as to o trivial or they dispute the legitimacy of others, which can lead to unreliable data. Moore, Aiken and Chapman (2000) see the police as filters, only recording some of the crimes reported to them. Furthermore, there are certain types of crime that are excluded totally from these statistics, seriously altering the extent to which the data can be classed as comprehensive.The term Ã¢â¬ËnotifiableÃ¢â¬â¢ offence essentially refers to one, which can be tried by the Crown Court. This leaves Ã¢â¬Ësummary offencesÃ¢â¬â¢ (those which can only be tried in a MagistrateÃ¢â¬â¢s Court) excluded from the data (Maguire 2002). In addition to this, crimes which are not regarded as the responsibility of the Home Office, such as those recorded by the British Transport Police, Ministry of Defence Police, and UK Atomic Energy Authority Police (who between them record some 80,000 notifiable offences annually) (Kershaw et al . 2001, p91) are also excluded from Ã¢â¬Ëofficial crime figures. Ã¢â¬ â¢A further limitation with police recorded crime data is caused by the unpredictable fluctuations with the remaining 20 per cent of crimes which the police themselves discover, either through observation, patrols or through confessions by those arrested. This could be due to increased arrests from planned operations targeted against a certain type of crime. For example, following the London riots in 2011, many people were arrested due to the police focusing their resource and effort on finding the offenders. Similarly, at pop festivals many drug users have been found and arrested.On the other hand, numbers of recorded crimes may fall if police interest in a particular type of crime is withdrawn. This could be for a number of reasons such as in the late 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s when the legalisation of homosexuality was imminent. At this time the police regularly ignored Ã¢â¬Ëindecency between malesÃ¢â¬â¢ which resulted in a fall of recorded offences to half the le vel previously regarded as normal (Walker 1971). In criminology, the term Ã¢â¬Ëthe dark figure of crimeÃ¢â¬â¢ is often used to refer to the crimes that are not reported and therefore not recorded in official statistics.In theory, the Ã¢â¬Ëdark figureÃ¢â¬â¢ consists of offences brought to the justice system but not registered in judicial sources (perhaps because they were settled outside of the court), undiscovered offences or offences where the victim has chosen not to reveal details (Johnson and Monkkonen 1996). This loophole seriously alters the accuracy of the criminal justice disciplinary system. The underlying reasoning for certain crimes not being reported are based on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s own judgement of the seriousness of the crime, police power, police diplomacy or simply because people see it as an inconvenience.It could be argued that if people donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe the reporting of their crime to be serious enough, then the justice system is not as accessible and tran sparent as it should be. This argument widens the issue of the dark figure of crime from a statistical one to an underlying and historical error creating much scope for debate. The police system is in place for the safety of citizens, but if citizens donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel the use of the justice system is necessary in certain instances, then what is the point in the justice system being in place for certain crimes?Furthermore, this hinders the reliability of criminologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ theories where a legalistic stance is taken in the definition of crime. A secondary measure of crime in Britain, regarded by Maguire as a Ã¢â¬Å"directly comparable rival to the police-generated crime statisticsÃ¢â¬ (Maguire 2002) is the British Crime Survey (BCS), now named the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) to reflect its geographical coverage. This measure attempts to combat the inaccuracy of the Ã¢â¬Ëdark figure of crimeÃ¢â¬â¢ referred to above.The CSEW was first conducted in 1892 and is a n annual survey rather than a list of statistics. When the survey was first conducted, there were 11 million crimes reported; however, official statistics recorded by the police only counted less than three million (Hough and Mayhew 1983)Ã¢â¬â this gap is first hand evidence of the Ã¢â¬Ëdark figure of crime. Ã¢â¬â¢ Forty six thousand households (ONS: Data sources Ã¢â¬â further information) were questioned in the year ending June 2012, with the CSEW focusing more on qualitative data rather than the quantitative data used in official statistics.The CSEW picks up on crime that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t surface in official statistics, with households asked about their own personal experiences of crime in the past twelve months as well as taking into account any non-response bias. The measure has a consistent methodology and the results are not skewed by a percentage of the population failing to report their crime. The measure suggests the true level of crime to be twice the official crim e rate due to the proportion of people who admit to being victims or offenders of crime in a face-to-face interview, but do not report this to the police.Although the CSEW does now include a section on domestic violence, an area previously missed off the national figures, (particularly when victims are scared of their offenders) the real rate of crime is still substantially under-estimated. Corporate or workplace crime, homicide, drug possession or crimes against people under the age of 16 are still not included in the CSEW figures. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, this is a major drawback to the CSEW as corporate crime is growing in our increasingly globalised economy whilst crimes against children appear to be remaining constant with no breakthrough on prevention.In 2011, of the police recorded crime statistics on sexual abuse against children, it was found that 1 in 10 children (9. 4%) aged between eleven and seventeen years old had experienced sexual abuse (NSPCC 31/12/12). Some progr ess appears to have been made in the area of corporate crime following a recommendation contained in the National StatisticiansÃ¢â¬â¢ Review of Crime Statistics (National Statistician, 2011 18/12/12) Ã¢â¬â there is now a survey of commercial victimisation which aims to provide statistics on corporate crime in the economy over the next three years and is planned to be incorporated into future quarterly releases in 2013.However, other drawbacks associated with the CSEW include the time lag on information collection Ã¢â¬â the survey records data from peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s experience 12 months prior. This is in comparison to police recorded crime in which the data is clearly more immediate. Furthermore, the CSEW is vulnerable to sampling errors and variation in results. One person may feel comfortable enough to admit criminal activity to one interviewer, but not to another. Therefore the reliability of the data can be challenged.When comparing both the CSEW and police recorded crime i n official statistics the most recent data from the Office of National Statistics can be analysed. The CSEW, based on interviews in the year ending June 2012, reveals a Ã¢â¬Å"statistically significant decrease of 6 per cent in the overall level of CSEW crime compared with the previous yearÃ¢â¬â¢s survey (ONS: Overall level of crime 18/12/12). Ã¢â¬ Similarly, Ã¢â¬Å"the overall level of notifiable crime recorded by the police decreased by 6 per cent in the year ending June 2012, compared with the previous year (ONS: Overall level of crime 18/12/12). Nevertheless, whilst the CSEW estimates just over 9. 1 million incidents of crime for the year ending June 2012, the official figures only record 3. 9 million offences. This is heavily based on the Ã¢â¬Ëdark figure of crimeÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â that proportion of crime in Britain which goes unnoticed by the police. In 2002, the CSEW (then named BCS) calculated that Ã¢â¬Å"40 per cent of crimes known to victims and reported to the poli ce do not end up in official statistics (Kershaw et al 2001, p992). It is evident that, whilst the CSEW does reveal a higher level of criminal activity in Britain, a majority of the crimes can regarded as not serious enough to be included in official statistics, and therefore should not alarm the population. Although the legalistic position attempts to simplify the scale of debate surrounding what crime actually is, stating Ã¢â¬Ëthe most precise and least ambiguous definition of crime is that which defines it as behaviour which is prohibited by the criminal codeÃ¢â¬â¢ Coleman (2000), this however creates a question on what is actually being regarded as illegal behaviour and Ã¢â¬Ëprohibited by the criminal codeÃ¢â¬â¢.Analysing the methods used in Britain to measure crime establishes the fact that criminal statistics are a social construction, based not on a set of legal definitions and laws, which can be transferred between social groups and times, but on a product of social processes. The process of attrition between an act, regarded as criminal, to the same act being punished contains a number of stages that blur the answer to the question Ã¢â¬ËHow much crime is there in Britain? It appears that the term Ã¢â¬Ëofficial crime figuresÃ¢â¬â¢ is somewhat paradoxical in the fact that if society is basing its justified opinion on these Ã¢â¬ËofficialÃ¢â¬â¢ figures, then it must take into account several exclusions in order to get a more comprehensive perspective on what the data is actually showing. Although the figures summarise the most serious crimes in Britain they do not show the total picture.In this day and age more emphasis needs to be placed on the responsibility of the criminal justice system and the link back to the definition of criminals in the first place. In particular, if crime is viewed from a labelling perspective, then the role that the legal system plays in the creation of crime is of great significance when measuring the true le vel of criminal activity in Britain.In addition, consideration needs to be given to future prevention of crime and the measurement of how effective society is at removing or reducing certain categories of crime. In closing, I would argue that when answering the question Ã¢â¬Ëhow much crime is there in Britain? Ã¢â¬â¢ it would be naive to base any argument upon these official crime figures as they are simply Ã¢â¬Ëindices of organisational processesÃ¢â¬â¢ Kitsuse and Cicourel (1963).
Friday, August 30, 2019
Family, one word with many meanings. In the Merriam-Webster dictionary family means a group of individuals living under one roof and usually one head. What does family mean to you? Most people would say family means love, friendship and caring. Others may say anger,disfunctional, and pain. For the past seventeen years of my life my immediate family have been my biggest support system. My immediate is my parents, sisters, brothers, grandparents, aunts and uncles. They have been my guiding lights through life. To me family means to love, being caring,supportive and being happy. However, there are other team environments that can also be considered as family. Cheerleading from age 3 to 14(delete) I participated in cheerleading for the Detroit Police Atletic League (PAL) from age 3 to 14 years old. Cheerleading is an activity performed by a team of individuals dedicated to working together to acheive excellence and a common goal. The cheerleading team can be considered as a form of family. They act as family members in time of need. They listen to problems, help solve problems, assist with homework, and help you acheive the cheer team goals. Cheerleading is a very competive sport. Many people believe that cheerleading is not a sport. They are right it is not just a sport it is more so a family. The team works togehter, help each other, listen to each other and work toward the common team goal. Cheerleaders are stereotype all the time. It is said that cheerleaders are out there to be pretty and popular, but what people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know is that the countless hours of hard work the team must endure to acheive the goal of excellence. The cheering team works together to acheive perfection and perform awesome routines. Cheerleaders develop friendships that will often last a lifetime. The squad becomes your second family and together the team grows and mature. They develop life lifr skills that will benefit each cheerleader forever. As a former cheerleader for 12 years I have made special bonds with people that I truly care about. Cheerleading taught me to be strong and fight for what I believe in. It has taught me to be a think postive and keep a happy spirit. My cheerleading experience helps me keep my life in order. Participating in cheerleading has developed a sense of displine in me to make sure I continueÃ to do the right things. My coaches were like parents to me. They treated me as if I were one of their child and wanted me to do my very best with anything they taught the cheerteam. They are the reason I have a love for cheerleading.The sport of cheerleading teaches hard work, perseverance, competitiveness, and teamwork. My immediate and cheerleading family have supported me through this whole journey. Every time I had to participate in a cheering activities, my immediate family was there cheering me on. When we had cheerleading competitions my parents made sure I could see them in the stands before I performed. My family showed so much love and support it had an impact on me excelling in this sport. Dancing from age 7 to 15(delete) Dancing has been apart of my life as well for nine years. When I was seven years my mother enrolled me into a dance school named MBS Training Center. My mother, father and other immediate family members showed how proud they were of me by coming to my recitals at the end of the year and showing their graditude for doing so well. Over the years dance has helped me to grow in other ways. From it I have learned that hard work really does pay off. I learned that discipline and self control are not only a vital part of dancing, but a necessary part of life. Also,I have recognized that motivation and perseverance are keys to success. What matters is not who wins in the beginning, but who is still on her feet in the end. Perhaps the most important lesson dance has taught me is responsibility. (Need to expand on this) Marching band senior year(delete) Joining the flag team in band auxiliary was something new for me senior year. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe I could do it but all of my family supported me through it all. They had faith in me and it motivated me to do nothing but the best. The band is like a family as well. Everyone in the band has to play a different role to support each other and keep everyone strong. You depend on your bandmates to lead you in the right direction. With love, care and support from family and band leaders I will be able to achieve this newÃ challenge just like the rest. (Need to expand on this) School work (delete) My education is important to me and important part of life. Education is a tool that is an essential part of acheiving my future goals. Even though I participated in extracurricula activities throughout my entire life I still manage to maintain a 3.5 or above Grade Point Average (GPA). My family and I have high expectations for me. In order for me to continue to do the things I loved I had to maintain excellent grades. Establishing a school familt is vital to completing your high school education. Your school family is with you during the hours you spend at school. They can help you accomplish your goals. I have put forth a commendable effort in my academic career, by being on the Honor Roll and maintaing an excellent GPA all four years in high school. I have also been recognized by the National Honors Society award and received PrincipalÃ¢â¬â¢s award. It makes me happy to know that my accomplishments brings a smile to my familyÃ¢â¬â¢s faces. Everything I do is to make them proud and continue to live our legacy. Education is an important aspect in life and vital to acheiving successful I have as a goal. I know I have to be on my pÃ¢â¬â¢s and qÃ¢â¬â¢s to achieve every goal my family and I have for myself. Knowing that they are there to encourage me makes it a bit easier. CLOSING (delete) Without my family I AM NOTHING. They are the reason I strive to be the best at any obstacle thrown at me. Anything that I planned on doing or wanted to achieve their were there for me. Now I am looking to establishing a college family at your university. Having a college family will be vital to my future success since immediate family maynot be located in near the immediate family.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Final global business plan paper for company in Brazil - Essay Example Whenever a company reaches out to new markets where there are always many factors that determine how well the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product is going to perform once it has been launched. As far as the energy drink Jackie O is concerned, factors look very favorable and suitable for a product launch in Brazil where political, economical, social and financial options are very healthy and growing. As already indicated by the case study, the political scenario is quite stable and favorable for a foreign investment, Brazilian government and few other countries are trying to form an alliance among Latin American countries which would significantly create a positive impact on the political stability in the region. Furthermore, economic conditions of Brazil are likely to favor any foreign investment where economy of Brazil comes under top ten economies of the world with most gross domestic product (GDP) which is an indicator of their economic stability. Their government and policies have worked well with the macroeconomic indicators to keep the economy growing even in the times of recession when the entire world was crumpling. (Baer, 2007). Also, one of the most crucial factors that influence the launch of a product in a new market is the availability of finances and financial institutions. Company A does not only have the option of taking funds from US accounts but they can also f inance their projects from the funds available at fully developed financial institutions like Banks in Brazil. For a product like energy drink, social factors will play an important role in determining the sales volume of the product (Grewal and Levy, 2009). There are some areas where problems might arise which include high inequality in the region, hunger and poverty with a high rate of epidemics including life threatening HIV, along with environmental issues like pollution and deforestation brought about by the recent development in the region particularly in urban areas. Brazil has a culture which includes people from many different ethnicities which would create a diversified market demand for the Company A, here is one important factor that Company A has to decide once they execute the plan for the launch of their product that whether to go with a generic product focusing all the strata of society or would they differentiating with respect to different taste according to the pr eference of different classes of people (Baer, 2007). Moreover, a plus factor for Company A is the use of eco friendly raw materials in the production process since many of the energy or carbonated drinks are not healthy or recommended by health experts as they provide a temporary uplift in the energy level and when the impact starts to decrease, the energy level falls way below the level it would have fallen had there been no intake of energy drink. The use of organic raw materials by Company A would make a healthy energy drink for the consumers and hence will give more energy without the crashing feeling (Brainard and Diaz, 2009). Apart from the socio and macro economic indicators, there are many other things that Company a needs to take into account which includes competitor analysis, exchange rate depreciation, taxation and regulatory laws. Company A must investigate the market to find out how many competitors are operating with their respective prices, they have to evaluate the expected fluctuation in the exchange rate which can either increase or decrease their profits. Also, a thorough and in depth analysis of taxation and regulatory laws are imperative since they vary from country to country and high depend on the
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
ENGLISH LANGUAGE - Language in Theory and Practice - Essay Example Advertising thus resorts into subtle messaging to obtain attention, develop interest, and stimulate desire for the thing being advertised (Proctor, Proctor & Papasolomou-Doukakis, 2002:32). The Citizen print ad contains multimedia texts Ã¢â¬â written words, pictures of champion skier Chemmy Alcott dressed in ski attire and holding her skis, and a close-up of the model of Citizen Eco-Drive, the watch being promoted. In boldface capital letters is the word UNSTOPPABLE appears twice on the page. Metaphor is described as Ã¢â¬Å"a rhetorical style of comparing two dissimilar objects, so that the characteristic of one object is transferred to the other.Ã¢â¬ In this advertisement, visual metaphor was used to effect visual persuasion (Miller, Hadjimarcou, & Miciak, 2000:60). In the ad, the visual metaphor is created between the skier and the watch, both facing the viewer frontally. The watch is unstoppable because it relies on an inexhaustible energy supply. Inexhaustible energy is likewise implicitly attributed to Chemmy Alcott as a matter of character. Furthermore, vector analysis enhanced by close-up shot identifies her direct stare at the viewer as a Ã¢â¬Å"demandÃ¢â¬ that also personally challenges the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s belief and behaviour. Here, Ã¢â¬Å"genderizationÃ¢â¬ is depicted no as attribute Ã¢â¬Å"but as a relation of power and a process by which gender structures are created, reinforced and/or transformedÃ¢â¬ (Norlander, 2000 in Lidestav & SjÃ ¶lander, 2007:352). Chemmy Alcott is depicted as the consummate athlete, a field dominated by men. The reference is clearly gender based, as women in sports are a rarity. For women, the construct Ã¢â¬Å"unstoppableÃ¢â¬ means that even if social norms tried to stop her, she would not. She does not detract from her femininity, however, which is why her watch is studded with 30 diamonds, Ã¢â¬Å"a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s best friendÃ¢â¬ , and with a subtle Mother-of-Pearl color, an
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Violence Against Women And Girls - Research Paper Example Modern societies are still learning to know how to treat the modern sophisticated woman who is financially independent and also academically competitive. Even though these women are financially and economically as well as intellectually competitive at the same level with men, they still face a lot of issues which limit how much they can achieve in their societies. One of the most obvious results of women sexualization issues and how it is related to gender violence is the way in which women are treated in most Islamic societies. In Saudi Arabia, women are prohibited by law from participating in such activities which are only thought to be meant for men, such as driving an automobile. This is an issue which has led to a lot of controversy in the world. In the year 2013, women in Saudi Arabia demonstrated against a law passed prohibiting them from driving. In Indonesia, women demonstrated in the streets while wearing short skirts in the demonstration of the increasing rape cases in Ind onesia. In the east, women are forced to wear very heavily so that they hide her femininity while in the west social pressures may force a woman to wear revealing clothes because they are judged by how they look. Gender violence has remained to be a major challenge of the 21st century, mainly because it is supported by many traditions and attitudes in many societies. To be able to deal with this gender violence, it will be necessary to overcome these barriers and make sure that women are viewed in a different way.
Monday, August 26, 2019
HEALTH LAW AND ETHICS - Essay Example Still, should value and regard fair guidance and advice, which in turn creates a favourable environment for employees. Thirdly, love and kindness are paramount as it creates a corporate culture through extending love and compassion that eventually promotes ethical decision-making. Facilitating ethical behaviour with attitudes and values requires one to have alignment among behaviour, attitudes, and values. Lastly, it is important to make decisions based on justice and fair consideration of facts. An administrator can encourage accountability and social responsibility in health care organizations by doing the following. First, administrators should be facilitators in health care organizations to ensure that employees carry out their duties as ought to do. Secondly, they should handle daily personnel problems and patient complaints to promote a favourable environment. To promote social responsibility, administrators should deal with individuals one on one to detect any undesirable behaviour that may deteriorate rules and regulations of a health care organization. Thirdly, it expected that administrators should relinquish critical decision to physicians. As a result, this encourages accountability, as one understands his or her duties and responsibilities. Following this, developing the above mentioned skills create a platform towards making effective decisions and delegating managerial tasks
Sunday, August 25, 2019
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS - Essay Example Capitalism in the society leads to class structure between halves and halve nodes. The halves are the capitalist who owns all the resources, and have nodes are the labourers whose only means of subsistence is their labour power. The capitalist buy labour in the market likes any other commodity (EyalSzeleÃ nyi &Townsley 1998). The surplus of labour in the economy goes into the capitalist in the form of supernormal profit. The surplus arises due to the worker working overtime with no payment. If a worker is assign to work for a certain job within 10 hours, and the worker finishes the task in 7hours, the 3hours extra will go into capitalist profit. Capitalist is society trace origin from 13th to 16th century. The reasons for emergence of capitalism in society were due to the society need to use wealth to create more wealth. In pre-capitalist society, the profit from enterprise was shared among the society members. The land, labour and capital were not factors of production but communal resource. With the emergence of capitalism, labour was viewed as a factor of production. The profit for the entire company goes into the pocket of one person. Capitalism develops fully in 16th century with the industrial revolution and development of companies. Industrial revolution is a period of advancement of industries due technology and innovation. Advances of industries leads to few individuals accumulating a lot of wealth leaving others poor. The companies that were developed were in a group of people but everyone depend on herself. Industrialization lead to emergence of capitalist nations in 17th century that became economically powerful. In a capitalist economy, the level of completion is high to economic scarce resources. The owners of production face completion in prices of goods and services from other individuals in the society. The competition in the society will leads to alienation of the owner and workers. The
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Modern History - Nazi ideology - Assignment Example Six weeks after Hitler was appointed Chancellor on March 18, 1933 the Nazi Minister of propaganda spoke to the German women. His speech set out the expected image of women and proper duties that were to be carried out by them. It is apparent that Goebbels made a strong statement when he said that women are not significant in terms of history and the things they do have no effect on society. He was of the view that the only thing that women do in history is to raise men who create it. This view was the same for the Nazi Party about women and their roles in society. Goebbels explained the idea of defining women only as a mother was because of the respect, and that is why Nazis kept them out of the political sphere (Ascheld, 2010). The women supported the party and the leaders even with the strong idea about women. It is evident as many women became party members. Also, through various avenues of propaganda, Nazi officials were able to convince women that their place in society lay in the private sphere. The act of placing enough of a priority for women as mothers to the nation, Nazism gained strength and grew across Germany. Teaching Nazism to the youth was one of the main Nazi ideologies hence it was essential to gain support of mothers and young women in the country. Pamphlets and propaganda posters were distributed to preach the values of Nazism for women and their need to raise strong Ã¢â¬Å"AryanÃ¢â¬ children (Ascheld, 2010). The difference between the private and the public sphere during the Third Reich is a key concept when talking about the image of the German woman. In the public sphere of the Nazis party, women were not expected to have a role in the Reichstag or hold any other political office. It was also evident that women would not work as doctors or lawyers. Nazi officials emphasized that women were to take care of their husbands and children. Hitler in his speech of 1934 Party Day he said that the manÃ¢â¬â¢s worlds were the sate while the woman was
Friday, August 23, 2019
Well-planned play, both indoors and outdoors, is a key way in which young children learn with enjoyment and challenge (QCA, 2000). Critically evaluate the wor - Essay Example Such play is pleasurable and fun, active and mind absorbing. Considering todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fast moving world and the technologies, while infants and children can be engaged by videos and technology based toys, they do not provide the same multi-faceted stimulation and developmentally essential experiences those more traditional games, toys, music, and imagination provides. It is true that play has an essential role in building social skills and communication, creativity and problem solving. The best developmental tool that we can give them is by allowing children to participate in self-directed, unstructured free play. Researches insists that while children are playing, we need to create a tolerance for error, allow them fail too, reducing the expectation that they must be perfect. This gives the child a scope of decision making, memory development and the thinking skills necessary for childhood success in the classroom and adult success in the workplace. Play is something that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t intend to target race, religion, or socio-economic status. Data from eminent child specialists gives clear picture that play deprivation leads to increased aggression and violence, anti-social behavior, repressing of emotions, learning disorders, and obesity. Play is crucial to both the cognitive and physical development of children, and its deprivation can have negative and long lasting effects. There could not be any second thoughts that children involved in the outdoor games in the playground enjoys the freedom to be physically active but above all this playing experience works as an outdoor learning laboratory with numerous exciting and challenging activities. When outdoors, children can observe nature, hang bird feeders, plant radishes, search for cicada shells, or watch the communal, determined behavior of ants transporting food. They can
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Steve Smith and postmodernism - Essay Example The paper "Steve Smith and Postmodernism" investigates how does Steve Smith defend postmodernism. The first defense of Smith from ÃËsterud is his criticism against ÃËsterud terminology as too abstract that cannot even pinpoint in detail his positions but rather content himself with quotations from international relations literature. In sum, Smith is criticizing ÃËsterud for lack of vagueness and lack of originality. The terminology which ÃËsterud uses that are often borrowed from epistemological argument and perspective, are also lambasted by Smith to be foggy and fancy Ã¢â¬Å"talking about imprecise shortcutsÃ¢â¬ . ÃËsterud penchant for usage of new terminologies as required in studying international relations is also debunked by Smith to be hardly unique to international relations. Even the deconstruction method and approach of ÃËsterud criticism against postmodernism which is deconstruction is also lambasted by Smith to be faulty because it leads an infinite regressi on that undermines the research. He also negated the claim of ÃËsterud that postmodernism is anti-unscientific is very simplistic and reject the notion put forth by Ostrud that Ã¢â¬Å"postmoderns are not rigorousÃ¢â¬ . The biggest defense of Smith for postmodernism from the criticism of ÃËsterud is his reiteration of the purpose of postmodernism to be closer to Enlightenment because it focuses on how to use knowledge to improve human condition which is the same as the aim of the enlightenment which is his direct refutation against ÃËsterudÃ¢â¬â¢s criticism.
Code of Sexual Ethics Essay The value of a code of sexual ethics is one that is extremely important to hold close to ones mind and soul. Human sexuality is a broad topic in society and everyone has different views on what is important to them as individuals. My view of human sexuality has been shaped with many influences. Growing up, my Mother always taught me to be comfortable with my sexuality, and I watched my older siblings show the same confidence that my Mother was teaching me. She taught me to respect others and myself equally, no matter what label of sexuality that they hold. Basically; Ã¢â¬Å"Treat others how you want to be treatedÃ¢â¬ . I hope to teach my children in the same effective way that my Mother taught my siblings and I. I feel as though having this code of sexual ethics will act as a backbone to the teachings of human sexuality for my children and the next generation. I plan for them to follow this code faithfully, as I will continue to do so throughout the remaining course of my life. CODE To my Children; I have put together a code of sexual ethics that will help instruct and guide you in the right direction throughout the course of your lives. Ã¢â¬Å"Part of discovering yourself sexually usually involves developing your personal set of morals and values as they relate to sexual issuesÃ¢â¬ (Hock, 6). This code of sexual ethics should not be viewed soley as disciplinary, the purpose is to provide guidance throughout the course of your lives. The first principle that is essential to your sexual health and well-being is to always use protection. This is important because Be faithful to your partner Wait until you are ready, do not let anyone pressure you/donÃ¢â¬â¢t take advantage Make sure itÃ¢â¬â¢s the right person to share the experience with Ã¢â¬Å"Most people agree that parents are the most appropriate source of [sexual] knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Hock, 15). THE PAST My parents have taught me to always be respectful to women. I would never force myself on any woman. They taught me to practice respect with all people, and not to judge others based on their sexuality, even if they may be different from me. I was also taught to never hold back my feelings, and to follow my heart. Yes, in some situations throughout my life, this has lead to heart break. However, in others, it has brought me to experiencing the most amazing feeling in the world; love. I have been known to wear my heart on my sleeve, however, this put forth both benefits and harms on my feelings throughout my life. Sex on the other hand, has always been a bit more personal. My parents did not exclusively teach me about sex. They taught me about love and relationships in general. Although, the topic of sex did arise, it was never the main focus of their teachings. My mother and I have a very comfortable relationship, we are usually able to talk about anything. She has taught me almost everything I need to know about how to make relationships work; along with the respectful ways to treat the woman I love. We did not start having these discussions until I was in high school. I wish that we would have talked about sexual values and behaviors while I was in middle school because that is when I started seriously liking girls. It all started at a pretty young age. I was always able to speak through my heart, even though I tend to be extremely shy. When it comes to feelings of my heart, I need to let it out. My mom and my peers have always been helpful to me in developing my awareness and understanding about my sexuality. I have never struggled with my sexuality personally, however, I have always cared greatly about the way I look. Some people call me Ã¢â¬Å"metro sexualÃ¢â¬ . This all started when I was very young. Because I wore nice clothes, and did my hair everyday, some people would mistake me for homosexual. This did not bother me though because I have always been comfortable with my sexuality because I know that I am not homosexual. I just like to look good, which in turn helps me feel good about myself. On the other hand, I think that the media may have played an unhelpful part in raising awareness and understanding about sexuality. Although some programs out there do a great job of explaining these concepts, most of the ones that I was exposed to, did not. Communication about sexuality is definitely welcomed when talking with my mother. However, it is almost fully unwelcomed when talking with my father. We just never talked about that sort of stuff. With my Dad and I, it has always been all about sports. Although, I am comfortable talking about my sexuality in general with all of my family members, I am not be comfortable going into detail on my sexual experiences. I think this is the case because my sexual experiences are a private, intimate matter. My family has no business in knowing about it unless something negative comes out of it, which it never has. THE PRESENT AND CONCLUSION The process of writing my code of sexual ethics was interesting. It allowed me to really look back on my past actions and reflect upon what I did wrong and what I did right. It is also interesting to think that I may be sharing this code with my children in the future. That fact in itself shaped the way I wrote my code of ethics because I really had to think about what I would approve of as a parent and how I would want my child to behave sexually. It was a hard process, but I learned a lot about myself along the way. I think that writing a code of sexual ethics was definitely useful and helpful in clarifying my sexual philosophy. This is because of the major thought process that was required to put into the creation of the code. I had to dig deep into my families, and my own beliefs and values when addressing sexual behavior, which in turn clarified some hazy thoughts in my mind as well. I currently live by most of the principles I wrote in my code of ethics. My parents raised me well and taught me to respect myself and others, and to also take responsibility for your actions. If there are any of the guidelines of my code that I did not live by in the past, than I will change my ways to live by them now. I can comfortably communicate with friends and intimate partners depending on the content of the subject. I have learned a great amount of information throughout this course. This information has shaped the way I formed my code of sexual ethics. We learned how to respect ourselves and love ourselves before anyone else and that was the basis of my code of sexual ethics. I think my code is pretty solid. I do not think it will need much revision in the future. However, it may need some additions. It may need additions because over the course of time my idea of ethics may change, as I grow older. When I am married the code may be a bit different for me, however I would want to teach my children this exact code of sexual ethics.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The Changing Business Environment Of Sainsbury Marketing Essay INTRODUCTION Sainsbury is a third largest food retailer in the United Kingdom. Sainsbury was founded in 1869 by John James Sainsbury and his wife Mary Ann in London, England and grew rapidly during the Victorian era. It grew to become the largest grocery retailer in 1922, pioneered self service retailing in the UK, and its heyday during the 1980. The founding Sainsbury family still retain approximately 15% of Sainsbury plc shares (as of May 2008), through various trust. The family sold down their stake from 35% in 2005. The largest Sainsbury family shareholders are Lord Sainsbury of Turville with 5.83. Largest overall shareholder is the investment vehicle of the Qatari royal family who now hold 26.145% of the company. The report is analyzing the growth of the company by PESTLE, SWOT and Porters five force analysis. SAINSBURY STRATEGY Sainsbury plcs present focus is to improve the performance of the core UK supermarket chain. Whilst doing so we will continue to explore and develop growth opportunities in other markets. Through implementing Managing For Value we will stretch our ambitions and challenge the conventional wisdom within the Company, thereby unlocking our potential and delivering value. Source: Sainsbury Web site. Sainsburys have in place quality control at many stages of the food retailing business; in the development of new food products, the companys Food Centre operates a three stage process of quality assurance: Quality Control; Sensory Appraisal; and Development. In Quality Control, new and re-developed products are sampled by product managers and buyers; in Sensory Appraisal, focus groups are used to find out what consumers think about current and new products; and in Development, the Food Centre is interested in identifying trends in food to produce new recipe ideas. Sainsbury has many strategy planning. Old strategy plan was Making life taste better which seems fairly bland on its own but then off course thats the paint since Sainsbury sells such a wide variety of product to such a group of people. The company has shown strategy as a part of its semi-annual results which declare yesterday. It also has told that has joined the organization which promotes the electronic communications of the shareholder named eTree, and the young tree of wood charity of preservation Wood Trust for each shareholder who is registered in service will offer. Till now almost 5 000 shareholders have signed, equivalent approximately to six acres of planting of trees, she has told. At the same time the technology played roles in it 123 %-s profits during the period. The supermarket has told that its restoration should reach on the move its purpose of 2.5 billion pounds of total of additional sales to 2008. The Total amount of sales has raised on 8.3 % to Ã £9,6 billions. Registration is free, and gives you full access to our extensive library of the White Book, examples and the analysis, loadings and professional work spheres, and it is more. It has faced especially healthy, become online, where first half sales have grown by more than 40 %-s year in a year, while expansion intends to offer the home delivery shopping 85 % of the British house economy. Availability of a product of Sainsbury also promoted in favorable turn from problems, which face in run to last Christmas which has left regiments empty. It has told in its statement: the Center in system of deliveries was on maintenance of benefit of recent reorganization and delivery of the basic efficiency duties. The reorganized warehouses address with the increased volume compared to last year, giving the improved service to shops with smaller quantity of a resource. The company is in the middle of three-year business transformation which saw that it has finished the Ã £1,7 billion, the seven-year agreement making the contract on the party with Accenture and has brought it IT back internal in October of last year. MACRO ENVIRONMENT Macro Environment provides information about the environment which can guide strategic direction and helps in making decision making (Saxby, C.L, et al 2002). A successful strategy should result in a favorable position in an industry Competitive advantage (Porter, M.E, 2004). Sustainable competitive advantage is achieved by generating or possessing resources that are inimitable, are valued by customer and can be used effectively (Fahy, J. and Smithee, A, 1999). These classifiable capabilities characterize the organization from the competition and lead to the ability which can provide a competitive advantage in the market. These distinctive capabilities of the company will provide a competitive advantage in the market. Environmental scanning helps the organization in providing information about the strengths and weakness of competitors and consumer behavior and helps in preparing marketing strategies to leverage these resources and apply appropriately. (Saxby et al, 2002) Saxby highlighted the importance of regular scanning due to the dynamic nature of the modern business environment. This is very important because even very minute differences in the environment such as cultural changes, legislative can be the difference between becoming the market leader and insolvency. It is also very important to notice that the environmental changes on one company will be different to that of other company. A threat for one company can be an opportunity for another, environmental scanning helps in observing these threats or opportunities and act on them. PESTLE ANALYSIS Political forces: Political forces are referred to policies that are related to government such as the degree of intervention in the economic scale. What product and services does the mentioning country want to provide what extent does it depend in subsidizing organizations? Sainsburys is forced by these factors. Economic forces: The economic changes of any government have impact on local business. These include interest rates, taxation charges, economic growth, inflation and exchange rates. So business influenced by the economical factors has impact nationally as well as globally. Sainsburys is automatically gripped by those forces. Social forces: (Argenti, 1974) It is very important for any business to understand the values and the culture of the society even before starting the business. Changes in social trends can impact on the demand for a firms products and the availability of individuals to work. This may also includes the tastes, habits, dislikes, customs, traditions, demographics etcÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Sainsbury does totally follow these factors. It is operating effective charities, sponsoring games, arranging social activities, raising fund for Animal welfare, and many more. Technological forces: New technologies create new products and new processes are created by modern technology. (Galbraith, 1967) Technology is The systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical tasks. Online shopping, bar coding and computer aided design are all improvements to the way we do business as a result of better technology. These developments can benefit consumers as well as organizations providing the products. Internet shopping, bar coding and computer proofed designs are all upgrading to the way .Sainsburys do to run their business as a result of better technology. Sainsburys is now using the self service counter. Environmental forces: Environmental forces include the changing of weather and climate. Changes in temperature can impact on many industries including farming, leisure and tourism and insurance as well. With major climate changes occurring due to global warming and with better environmental awareness this external forces is becoming an important issue for Sainsburys to consider. Legal forces: Sainsburys is in the boundaries of legal forces locally, nationally, globally. These are very close to the legal enforcements in which firms operate. The introduction of discrimination of age and disability discrimination, legislation, Show ID, etc. SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT analysis is done on internal and external environment one of the most important strategic planning process. The environmental factors in the organization are divided into Internal and External factors. Internal factors are further classified as Strengths or Weakness and the external factors are further classified into Opportunities or Threats. Such an analysis of the strategic environment is referred to as SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis provides all the information that is required to match the organizations capabilities to the competitive environment in which it runs. How SWOT analysis fits into environmental scanning is shown as SWOT Analysis Framework SWOT ANALYSIS OF SAINSBURYS: Strengths Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ This is a very strong company with huge traders who are interested and trust worthy to the company. Also it had 509 supermarkets and 276 stores, thus became a Established trader. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ To develop in business every company has to depend on customers. It is said that Customer is God, as a popular and reputed company Sainsburys followed the saying and won its customers trust and developed a good customer base. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Had a huge chain of Supermarkets with 509 supermarkets, 276 stores and a bank. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Also it had large volumes of stock so it helps in reducing the cost. Weakness Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Having huge staffs make them pay more. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Having 509 supermarkets and 276 stores it is having high maintenance cost. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Because of heavy stocks if product is failed huge stock will be leftover. Threats Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ As UK is having many supermarkets there is always heavy completion among ASDA, WALMART, TESCO etc Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Having many discount offers company may lose profits on certain products. Opportunities Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Having good volumes it is planning for new activities. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ It is a huge success in United Kingdom and now planning to expand into Eastern Europe. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Also had large customer base and there is scope for huge employment. PORTERS 5 FORCES ANALYSIS Competitive rivalry Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ the retail market is extremely competitive with a very crowded market. Now, more and more companies are trying to get into non food sectors (Rigby and Killgren 2008) further intensifying the competition. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Sainsburys has a market share of 14.9% in 2007, steadily increasing since its restructuring program that started in 2004 (Annual Report 2007). This is a positive trend but it lags well behind the runaway market leader Tesco, showing that there is considerable distance to cover. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Tesco, Asda, and Morrisons are the other three big supermarket chains in the UK retail sector. All of them have a different competitive advantage over their competitors. Sainsburys reach in the convenience stores makes it have a larger customer reach. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Banks and building societies compete with Sainsbury bank but it is not a core business for Sainsburys. Barriers for entry Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Barriers to entry are extremely high in the food retail market due to a number of factors. Firstly, organized retail is amongst the most sophisticated sectors within the UK and needs a lot of investment, along with significant brand development, which takes years to establish (Doyle 2002). Secondly, retail is also at an advanced stage within the UK and most of the western world, which means there is little scope for new entrants to establish themselves. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Local knowledge is extremely crucial within the food retail sector, something that is difficult for foreign firms to replicate. This is corroborated by the presence of few global supermarkets within UK. Threats of Substitutes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The threat of substitutes in the food retail industry is a low one simply because consumers view it as a necessity, especially in the developed world and increasingly in the emerging markets. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The retail market is always trying to converge and assimilate new innovations with respect to food products or alternative businesses, to make shopping an extremely pleasurable experience. This makes them extremely difficult to substitute Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The only major threat of substitute is an internal industry threat whereby one supermarket can lap up the business of other supermarkets. Buyer power Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Buyer power is high in this industry simply due to the presence of so many competitors selling the same products. It is only differentiated in price and consumer loyalty and increasingly on green credentials. Moreover, the switching costs are low for consumers. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ As the economy goes further towards recession (ODoherty 2008) consumers needs are likely to be given more weight, increasing their power considerably. Supplier power Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Supplier power is usually more complicated as it is difficult to categorize it. It is safe to call it a mutually dependent relationship as suppliers are in itself huge companies, like PG, Unilever, Cadbury etc. with huge brand appeal. It can be argued that if supermarkets do not sell their products consumers will shift loyalties, making suppliers very powerful. However, if the products of big companies do not reach supermarkets, their sales volumes will be affected hugely. The relationship might change depending on the situation of the big branded supplier, for example, when sales of Cadburys dairy milk increased through the successful Gorilla ad campaign (Wiggins and Urry 2007). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Supplier power of smaller suppliers will not be considerable because of their sales volumes on dependence on these supermarkets. Conclusion Here we can see that Sainsbury always use the market mix to develop and implement its strategies by using the market mix. It satisfies the customers by improving the strategies which meet the needs of the customer. It always research on the market to know the interest of a customer who is able to buy its products. It continues to implement the market segmentation to develop its business strategies which shows the development of a business. Sainsbury use the market segmentation to display large variety of products and sell to deferent groups and to achieve large amount of sales overall. It offers a large number of products in a convenient location and opens the store for long hours. It also encourages the customers by easy cash options through debit card and credit card. It also offers the cash back facility to the customers on their purchases. Recommendation Sainsbury have to give high quality product and have to care about customers satisfactions. They have to sell product with particular prize for customer. They have to care about customer loyalty and satisfaction.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
A Report On Romeo Juliet English Language Essay What methods does Shakespeare use to show the characters feelings and thoughts in Act 3, Scene 5 of Romeo and Juliet? Explain the scenes importance and consider how different audiences might respond. Shakespeare wrote the play, Ã¢â¬ËRomeo Juliet more than 500 years ago and he used many techniques to make it interesting. Using techniques in a play is really important because it makes the play effective and also makes the reader understand the play better. Shakespeare uses a variety of techniques to show the characters feelings in Act 3, Scene 5 of Ã¢â¬ËRomeo Juliet. For example, Shakespeare uses insults, antitheses, list, ambiguous statements and many more. In Act 3, Scene 5, Lord Capulet wants Juliet to marry Paris as he is lovely and honourable person. Previously, he was extremely happy as his only daughter is going to get married. But when she says, Ã¢â¬ËNo then the mood of Lord Capulets changes drastically, therefore his mood goes from happy to angry, soft to harsh and weak to strong. Furthermore, Shakespeare uses many techniques to express Lord Capulets anger with Juliet. One of the techniques that Lord Capulet says to Juliet is insults. This is when in Act 3, Scene 5 he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Out, you green-sickness carrion! Out, you baggage! You tallow-face! Ã¢â¬ By saying this he implies that Juliet is a burden and a disease to him. Here Lord Capulet is being extremely rude by humiliating his only own daughter like this. Lord Capulets daughter, Juliet, is the most important character in this scene as it is primarily based on her. Shakespeare shows Juliets emotions by using statements with double meaning (ambiguous statements). For example, when Juliet says, Ã¢â¬Å"Delay this marriage for a month, a week,Ã¢â¬ Lady Capulet thinks that she is too young and needs some time. But what she actually means is that she needs some time to think about what she is going to do, to be able to be with Romeo. Juliets mum, Lady Capulet is antagonised by Juliets reply because she said Ã¢â¬Å"NoÃ¢â¬ which was reply that nobody has imagined. This is clear when Juliet asks Lady Capulet for help but she replies, Ã¢â¬Å"Talk to me not for Ill not speak a wordÃ¢â¬ . This is just like saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Talk to my hand, not to my faceÃ¢â¬ . This clearly shows how rude, arrogant and abusive Lady Capulet is. The Nurse, on the other hand, is really worried about Juliet because she is already married and her parents are forcing her to marry Paris. When the Nurse says, Ã¢â¬Å"I think it best you married the county. O, Hes a lovely gentleman!Ã¢â¬ , she uses vocative because she is really apprehensive about Juliet getting married to Paris, as she is already married to Romeo. In this text an exclamation mark is used and punctuation is really important when writing a play as the reader can know how characters can say their dialogues. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"Hang thee, young baggage! disobedient wretch!Ã¢â¬ Here Shakespeare uses a comma, to show there is a pause in the dialogue. Also, he uses exclamation marks, which tells the reader that Lord Capulet says the dialogue in a harsh way. Moreover, it also depends on the audience how they will interpret and react to the dialogue. For example, when Lord Capulet say Ã¢â¬Å"hang, thee, beg, starve, die in the streets.Ã¢â¬ There is a techniques used her which is list. Also, if there were modern audiences then they would interpret this as Lord Capulet being very harsh on his daughter but on the other hand the Shakespeare audiences will interpret as Lord Capulet doing the right thing and considering that Juliet is the one who is wrong because in those times there were more arrange marriages than love marriages. Lord Capulet also tries to gather sympathy from the modern and Shakespeare audiences. For example, when Capulet says, Ã¢â¬Å"Day, night, hour, tide, time, work, play, alone, in company.Ã¢â¬ He is saying that he has looked after and cared for Juliet for every bit of his life. Also, this text from the play is a technique, which is called list. Capulet says this so he can gather sympathy from the audiences. He will get sympathy from the Shakespeare audience because in Shakespearean time the father chooses the groom for the bride. On the other hand, the modern audience will sympathise with Juliet because they think that a women have the right to choose her groom. After all she is the one who is going to be married and spend her life with her husband. In conclusion, using techniques in a play is really important for a play, as it gives the play a new layout. Also, Shakespeare puts the characters thoughts and feelings in their speech. He builds up dramatic tension between characters which conveys their emotions and therefore portrays their relationship.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Living in a Barbie World She took the world by storm with her luxurious blond hair, blue eyes, and long legs. Soon, little girls all over the world were emulating and praising this eleven-and-a-half-inch-tall plastic doll (Napier). Throughout the decades, she has become an icon to little girls, so much that some are wondering whether the stereotypical ideals for women exemplified by Barbie have affected females in regards to body image. When Barbie first appeared, she bore her trademark black and white swimsuit and swirling ponytail. Over the years as fashion and teenage lifestyle trends have shifted, so has Barbie. She has evolved from having bendable legs, a twisting waist, long hair, and sophisticated look in the 1960s to the athletically inclined Barbie with bendable wrists, elbows, and ankles in the 1970s. In the 1980s, a new friendlier, open-mouthed smiling, and bright-eyed Barbie emerged on the scene (Riddick). Her wardrobe took on a bit of pizzazz in the 1990s when she started sporting clothes created by famous fashion designers such as Calvin Klein and Vera Wang (Fashion). Not only has this doll transformed into an internationally known fashion savvy doll, she has left psychologists and parents wondering if she may be at fault for many female body image problems because of her overly slender stature. It is incredibly amazing that anyone could consider the body measurements of 5'6", 110 pounds, and 39-18-33 attainable or at all a realistic womanly figure (Napier). These are Barbie's measurements in proportion to the size of a real woman and also the spark that started the fire of controversy concerning gender stereotyping in the nation. The accusations by feminists and doctors alike are that Mattel, the manufacturer of the doll, has projected harmful body images onto our female youth by subtly placing these stereotypes into the media and into little girls hands. The psychologists insist that the young girls notice the body shapes of the doll and translate them into what a female should physically look like thus creating a problem down the road such as low self-esteem or an eating disorder (Langley). Although the Barbie manufacturer's prime intention for the doll was to inspire self-esteem, glamour, and friendship, society's stereotypes have caused her much media strife. There has been so much controversy that in 1998 she underwent plastic surgery to reduce her breast size, liposuction her hips, and inject the fat into her waist.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Privacy Rights Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The privacy of the individual is the most important right. Without privacy, the democratic system that we know would not exist. Privacy is one of the fundamental values on which our country was founded. There are exceptions to privacy rights that are created by the need for defense and security. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When our country was founded, privacy was not an issue. The villages then were small and close. Most people knew their neighbors and what was going on in the community. They did not have drunk drivers, terrorist, or any other threat of changing the way they lived. The transportation that most people had access to were horses. Today there are autos that can be fatal if not controlled. Speed limits and licenses are two examples. The government we have in place maintains and organizes our society. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The elements of control are often viewed as violations of privacy. These elements are meant to protect us from irresponsible people and from hurting themselves. The laws that are in place still give privacy without invading personal lives. Privacy is only violated when people feel they are being violated. Jonathan Franzen writes this example of his feelings about privacy. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"One of my neighbors in the apartment building across the street spends a lot of time at her mirror examining her pores, and I can see her doing it, just as she can undoubtedly see me sometimes. But our respective privacies remain intact as long as neither of us feels seen.Ã¢â¬ If people feel comfortable in their surroundings then privacy is not a concern. At other times, people feel violated when they are subject to random searches; this random factor is what other people consider wrong. People feel intruded on when they see a roadblock ahead or a request to see their driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license when writing checks. Others are interrupted at dinner by the phone ringing from telemarketers. This selling of information is what the Europeans call data protection. If the data is not kept private, things such as credit card numbers could be stolen over the phone. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The privacy in America will forever be changing as technology changes. Cell phones have been a factor in the way people communicates. Automobiles are equipped with TVs and mobile Internet. Privacy is increased, as people communicate less in person. People can spend an entire day in the car and have complete communication with others. Franzen also has this view about transportation.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Jealousy can be found everywhere around us. Between the ones we love, or even between the ones we hate. Jealousy may also serve different purposes. It can be used as building blocks to build up the relationship, but it can act as a hurricane and blow everything down. In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello, the namesake protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic flaws are possessiveness, insecurity, and loyalty, which fail to serve his ability to see past his feelings. OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s first tragic flaw is possessiveness. Othello was a high-ranking soldier who worked in the army, which would have increased his masculinity in comparison to other men. This may be a reason for developing the idea of men being greater and more powerful than women. This idea of him being at a higher level may have resulted him into thinking that he possessed Desdemona, and that nobody else could have her if he could not. Ã¢â¬Å"Sexual possessiveness come from male personality traits, and that the traditional perception of masculinity indicates that male has full power, and control, which runs counter to his dependency upon his wifeÃ¢â¬ (Ben Zeev). Othello explains that the reason he killed Desdemona was because of her affair with Cassio. Ay with Cassio, Had he been true, If heaven would make me such another world Of one entire and perfect chrysolite, IÃ¢â¬â¢d not have sold her for itÃ¢â¬ (5. 2. 155~158). He ended up killing Desdemona because of his possessiveness. If she loved Cassio then she needs to be killed, even though he tells Emilia that he loved Desdemona so much that he would not have traded her for anything in the world. OthelloÃ¢â¬ â¢s envious emotion overpowered his actions, not just because of his possessive attribute, but also because of his insecurity. Othello was different than everyone else in Venice and Cyprus. Because was a Moor, he was constantly bashed upon with racial comments and was treated unfair because of his race. Ã¢â¬Å"Whether a maid so tender, fair and happy, So opposite to marriage that she shunned The Wealthy curled darlings of our nation, Would ever have, tÃ¢â¬â¢incure a general mock, Run from her guardage to the sooty bosom Of such a thing as thou-Ã¢â¬Å" (1. 2. 69~74). Barbantio, the father of Desdemona, was against his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage because Othello was black. Despite OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s high social status, rank, money and respect, Barbantio refused to accept Othello as his son-in-law. Now for want of these required conveniences, her delicate tenderness will find itself abused, begin to have gorge, disrelish and abhor the moor. Very nature will instruct her in it and compel her to some second choiceÃ¢â¬ (2. 1. 11~16). Iago said this to Othello, persuading him of the rumour between Desdemona and Cassio was due to OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s race. Iago states that Desdem ona will soon find a man like her own, and leave Othello, because he is Ã¢â¬ËdifferentÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬Å"When the man perceives the woman to be his whole world, he feels that any separation from her entails a loss of his own identityÃ¢â¬ (Ben-Zeev). When Othello believed that the affair between Cassio and Desdemona was true, he could have felt like he lost his identity, making him insecure and more vulnerable to jealousy. Lastly, OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic flaw is that he is loyal. Othello was a very honorable man, and trusted Iago, a little too much. This is shown when Othello repeats Ã¢â¬Å"Honest IagoÃ¢â¬ numerous times throughout the play. Iago tried to destroy Othello with his cunning words and actions, by betraying and abusing OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s trust, persuading him into thinking that he was an Ã¢â¬ËhonestÃ¢â¬â¢ man. Ã¢â¬Å"I think thou dost. And for I know thouÃ¢â¬â¢rt full of love and honesty And weighÃ¢â¬â¢st thy words before thou givÃ¢â¬â¢st breathÃ¢â¬ (3. 3. 123~125). It is not wrong to say that OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s insecurities developed his trust towards Iago. When you are insecure, one of the escape routes you choose is to depend on someone else. If you have no one to trust, then you can feel fear and paranoia, and to get rid of these emotions, your instinct is to rely on someone else (Wilder). OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s insecurities lead to OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s reliance towards Iago, and his faith and royalty prevented him from seeing past his jealous feelings. As a tragic hero, Othello has tragic flaws, and his flaws make him more vulnerable towards jealousy. Throughout the play, Othello showed three traits: his possessiveness towards Desdemona, insecurity towards himself and loyalty towards Iago. These three characteristics created a home for the green-eyed monster to grow bigger, and create chaos. OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s jealous feelings grew so big that it could not be controlled. Jealousy can be a healthy to maintain a relationship between two people, but if it is abused, it can be dangerous.
Capitalism Harmonizing to Karl Marx InThe Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx evaluates the effects of capitalist economy on society and asserts that it has both positive and negative constituents. Marx states that capitalist economy ends feudal system, establishes the universe market, develops a more efficient commercialism, agglomerates population, and increases the technological procedure every bit good as communicating on land. However, Marx is extremely critical of capitalist economy. He notes the steep category division between the opinion middle class and the tuging proletarian categories and acknowledges this as a cardinal defect in the party. He views the category division as a merchandise of historical forms. Marx disagrees with the Southern Cross of capitalist society and its strong accent on pecuniary dealingss. He believes the subjugation of the workers will imminently spur the overthrow of the middle class. Marx makes a persuasive and perceptive statement analysing the advantages and disadvantages of capitalis t economy, while foretelling its eventual death. Marx underscores this theory by prefering socialism as a gradual replacing for capitalist economy, which would so germinate into to entire Communism. Feudalism, from MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s position, was an inefficient economic system that Ã¢â¬Å"no longer sufficed for the turning wants of the new marketsÃ¢â¬ ( 10 ) . Marx credits capitalist economy with the terminal of feudal system. The feudal system was no longer compatible with the turning productive forces ; feudal system was curtailing the really productiveness and exchange of the fabrication industry. As demand for new merchandises continued to lift, universe markets continued spread outing. The consequence was the fabrication system, which had later turned into the Ã¢â¬Å"giant, modern industryÃ¢â¬ ( 11 ) . Through industry, there was an instant betterment in production. The addition in the velocity and efficiency of production helped come on the invention of new engineering. In add-on to stoping feudal system and holding created a more efficient economic system, Marx sees capitalist economy as going a revolution. Marx takes note that the productivity of the spread outing universe markets was the fastest of all time witnessed earlier. Ã¢â¬Å"The middle class during its regulation of scarce one hundred old ages, has created more monolithic and more prodigious productive forces so have all preceding coevalss togetherÃ¢â¬ ( 14 ) . CapitalismÃ¢â¬â¢s enlargement led to the formation of a well-developed commercialism, pilotage, and land communicating. As a consequence of those accomplishments, there was a growing in urbanisation, increased capital, and the changeless betterment of industry ( 11 ) . The middle class has subjected the state to the regulation of the towns. It has created tremendous metropoliss, has greatly increased the urban population as compared with the rural, and has therefore rescued a considerable portion of the population from the idi ocyofrural lifeÃ¢â¬ ( 14 ) . Marx argues that the specifically capitalist system of production and itsurban systems incorporate people and compelled them to interact in a mode that was unprecedented in rural countries. Later, Marx will see this efficient economic revolution as the stepping-stone towards Communism. Capitalism contributed vastly towards the development of the modern province. Although the replacing of Feudalism did present an improved economic system, Marx disputes that it did non include the devastation of its category hostility. The two categories within society were resolutely split and developed into two obviously contrasting categories. A hierarchy was formed with the middle class on top as the opinion category and the laboring workers on underside. There were no societal differentiations between the two categories besides their differing functions in capitalist community. From the outgrowth of this new industry came its leaders, the modern middle class, and the workers, the modern labour category, Ã¢â¬Å"who live merely so long as they find work, and who find work merely so long as their labour additions capitalÃ¢â¬ ( 16 ) . Marx characterizes the mercenary middle class as opinion over the workers thanks to the go oning addition of capital and private belongings. The workers were a agency of production, no longer necessitating any specialised acc omplishments like before capitalist economy ; they were an Ã¢â¬Å"appendageÃ¢â¬ of the machine ( 16 ) . Ã¢â¬Å"The middle class has stripped of its aura every business hitherto honored and looked up to with reverent aweÃ¢â¬ ( 12 ) . Occupations that were one time considered to be skilled labour were losing their prestigiousness as their specific accomplishments were rendered worthless under new methods of production ( 17 ) . The middle class attempted to deskill their places and therefore rid society of a in-between category. By deskilling doctors, attorneies, and priests, the middle class could force these workers into the labor category where they could work and suppress them with much greater easiness. The lower strata of the in-between category began to drop into the workers as good. Nonetheless, an spread outing labor category was deriving in both Numberss and in strength thanks to the steps which unified workers under capitalist production. Marx criticizes capitalist economies ageless demand for the revolutionizing of production and the instability that this causes. The Ã¢â¬Å"everlasting uncertainness and agitation distinguish the middle class era from all earlier onesÃ¢â¬ ( 13 ) . He sees this as contradictory and irrational because it is non executable to anticipate lasting uninterrupted growing and enlargement for economic success. The demand to constantly spread out oneÃ¢â¬â¢s market drives the middle class to work markets all over the universe. Ã¢â¬Å"All that is solid thaws into airÃ¢â¬ ( 13 ) . Metaphorically talking, Marxhighlights the instabilities within capitalist economy. He underscores that the ceaseless demand for growing leaves capitalist economy without a Ã¢â¬Å"solidÃ¢â¬ foundation. The middle class, as Marx puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"played a most radical roleÃ¢â¬ ( 12 ) . The middle class may hold ended the feudal ties that bounded people to their Ã¢â¬Å"natural higher-ups, Ã¢â¬ nevertheless ; they established the workman as merely a Ã¢â¬Å"paid wage-laborer, Ã¢â¬ without any personal worth ( 12 ) . Marx believes that the middle class have belittled the working-class adult male, the worker, into nil more than a trade good. He goes on to state Ã¢â¬Å"a category of labourers, who live merely so long as they find work, and who find work merely so long as their labour additions capitalÃ¢â¬ ( 16 ) . Marx claims the workers have no single character and go obviously a beginning of capital for the middle class. The laden workers would finally get the better of this by subverting the middle class. Marx believes capitalist economy will, at one point, no longer be compatible to run society. The workers do non come on with the increasing industry ; They Ã¢â¬Å" [ sank ] deeper and deeper below the conditions of being of [ their ] ain classÃ¢â¬ ( 22 ) . The middle class relied on capital. Capital is merely produced every bit long as the wage-laborers are portion of production. However, in capitalist economy, competition with engineering unfolded and threatened the wage-laborersÃ¢â¬â¢ topographic point in production. The proletariansÃ¢â¬â¢ topographic point in production regressed and became threatened of bing. Marx states that the middle class are no longer suit to be the Ã¢â¬Å"ruling category in society, Ã¢â¬ because of this. The workers, who have no ownership of belongings or power over productive forces, were the bulk of society ; hence, their battles should be the battles of the state ( 21 ) . Marx theorizes that the workers would subvert the middle class hierarchy fueled by their ain category battle. The middle class in respects to capitalist economy, in MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s position, was Ã¢â¬Å"like the magician who is no longer able to command the powers of the nether universe whom he has called up by his spellsÃ¢â¬ ( 15 ) . The middle class developed excessively much power over the on the job category and enslaved them Ã¢â¬Å"by the machine, Ã¢â¬ with changeless labour ( 17 ) . Marx stated that the middle class oppressed the workers to the point of revolution and overthrow. What makes the workers capable of subverting the dominant middle class was that they had increased in figure and strength, holding become more greatly concentrated in the multitudes ( 18 ) . Ironically, the enlargement of capitalist economy under the middle class is what assisted the workers in doing the overthrow possible. The workers were better able to pass on with one another through the improved engineering. Furthermore, the workers could form themselves into labour brotherhoods that could order statute law to be passed in acknowledgment of workerÃ¢â¬â¢s involvements. Marx establishes the fact that the middle class become so consumed by their power from capitalist economy, that they lose sight of how laden the workers become. In response to the failures of the middle class towards intervention of the workers, and the proletarianÃ¢â¬â¢s rise to laterality, Marx presents Communism. The Communist party sought the overthrow of middle class domination and the rise of power from the workers ( 23 ) . The Communists represented the involvements of all workers, and do non organize opposing propertyless parties. How the Communists achieved this, Marx inside informations, is that they abolish private belongings. By acquiring rid of private belongings, the anchor of capitalist economy, the middle class lose their societal power and go at equal footings with the workers. They converted private belongings to Ã¢â¬Ëcommon propertyÃ¢â¬â¢ so that they could acquire rid of category character, which separated the workers from the middle class. The Communists besides sought the elimination of the proletariansÃ¢â¬â¢ lowly map in capitalist economy, to increase the bourgeoisieÃ¢â¬â¢s capital ( 25 ) . Alternatively, the Communists wanted to Ã¢â¬Å"centralize all instruments of production in the custodies of the stateÃ¢â¬ so that there would non be power in the custodies o f the few ( 31 ) . The overall end of the Communists could be seen as no longer holding the category hostility as were in capitalist economy, and holding the whole state be in control of the production so that there was no laden category. Although Marx sees capitalist economy as holding positive benefits in society, he does non believe it was the right way for society to follow. Capitalism made headroom towards a genuinely revolutionized modern province. It increased productiveness among universe markets, introduced new engineering and communications, and achieved industrialism. However, category hostilities were non eliminated, and alternatively became more profoundly embedded. The middle class and workers had turned into two viing categories through capitalist economy. Materialism was more extremely regarded than individuality, holding led to the workers suffered. Marx sees capitalist economy as the measure towards accomplishing pure Communism. Communism would acquire rid of the societal hierarchy founded in the capitalist system, holding made the workers equal. In decision, MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s persuasive and perceptive essay efficaciously answers why capitalist economy overall does non function good for the working-class , and was instead a needful revolution for the measure towards Communism.